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Pediatría Atención Primaria

versión impresa ISSN 1139-7632

Resumen

GARCIA SANCHEZ, N.  y  ASOCIACION ESPANOLA DE PEDIATRIA (CAV-AEP). Comité Asesor de Vacunas et al. Relief of pain and distress during immunizations. Synthesis of the evidence: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria [online]. 2015, vol.17, n.68, pp.317-327. ISSN 1139-7632.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S1139-76322015000500006.

Background: in healthy children and adolescents, immunizations that require a needle related procedure are the most common source of pain and distress. Parents, children, adolescents and health-care providers are concerned about this. The Advisory Committee on Immunization of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (CAV-AEP) believes that address pain and distress at the time of vaccination is necessary following recommendations that have to be based on rigour and science. Methods: we divided the subject in four areas: breastfeeding and oral sucrose solutions, topical anesthetics, vaccination administration methods and other interventions (distraction). Synthesis of evidence was made. Assuming the recommendations of The Clinical Guideline of Anne Taddio (2010) and adding the evidence of clinical trial published after the Guide. Results: methods that showed effectiveness in diminishing pain were: for infants, breastfeeding before, during and after the puncture. Oral sucrose solutions could be an alternative if breastfeeding is not possible. Topical anesthetics are effective for all ages but a time to produce effect is required and need financial resources. No aspiration for intramuscular injection, put the injection as quickly as possible, give the vaccines so that the most painful the last. If more than one vaccine injection is required in the same visit, and it is possible, it is preferable to inject simultaneously more than one vaccine than sequentially. Hold the infant. For children 2 to 14 years use distraction techniques. Conclusions: as a thorough revision of the topic was made, there is enough evidence to recommend that in any setting where children immunization is given, techniques to mitigate pain at the time of vaccination should be implemented; moreover these strategies are simple and easy to assimilate inclinical practice.

Palabras clave : Anesthesia and analgesia; Pain management; Pain; Immunization; Vaccination.

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