SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.15 issue43Significance of anaemia in the different stages of lifeNursing care in situations of induced /caused abortion: an integrative literature review author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Enfermería Global

On-line version ISSN 1695-6141


MARTINEZ DIAZ, Juan Daniel; ORTEGA CHACON, Verónica  and  MUNOZ RONDA, Francisco José. Design of clinical questions in evidence-based practice: formulation models. Enferm. glob. [online]. 2016, vol.15, n.43, pp.431-438. ISSN 1695-6141.

Objective: To identify standard patterns for the construction of clinical queries in the context of evidence-based practice scenario. Method: A literature review was carried out. A sensitive and specific search was driven into MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and LILACS databases, along with academic search engine Google Scholar. Search limits: publishing period (January 1995 to April 2015) and language (articles in English). Free key words and descriptors of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used were: evidence based practice, question, formulation, well-built question, framework. Results: 10 manuscripts providing the original design of patterns for the formulation of clinical questions in the field of evidence-based practice were found. The PICO model is the best and broadly known, and it is commonly used in quantitative research. PICO model has also been the foundation to PICOT, PICOTT, PICOS, PIPOH, PECORD, and PESICO models. In the field of health management, ECLIPSE model highlights for management-related queries. Finally, SPIDER and SPICE models have been commonly used for qualitative research questions, due to their advantage for adapting its components to the qualitative phenomenon. Conclusions: These standard models behave as suitable tools to guide search strategies and define fields of interest. Given the variety of elements that configure these patterns, their comprehensive knowledge increases its potential applications. These structures should not be considered as a rigid rule. Moreover they draw a wide and flexible scope to drive effective search strategies.

Keywords : evidence based practice; question; formulation; framework.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in Spanish     · Spanish ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License