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Enfermería Global

On-line version ISSN 1695-6141


FERREIRA-COUTO, Cristina Manuela  and  FERNANDES-CARNEIRO, Marinha do Nascimento. Trauma perineal prevention: an integrative literature review. Enferm. glob. [online]. 2017, vol.16, n.47, pp.539-575.  Epub July 01, 2017. ISSN 1695-6141.

This article describes the strategies that can be developed by the midwife in order to maintain the integrity of the maternal perineum and prevent the practice of episiotomy during the active phase of the second period of labor.


To assess the available scientific evidence about the midwife’s interventions in order to prevent perineal trauma.


Identification of articles that incorporate scientific evidence on preventing perineal trauma, using the following databases: Medline, Elsevier, Nursing Reference, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, which resulted in 14 articles.


The performance of the midwife in the prevention of perineal trauma must follow a sequential set of interventions: to encourage moderate exercise three times a week during pregnancy; to encourage women to perform the perineal massage from the 30th week of pregnancy; to promote the restriction of perineal manipulation during labor, doing only a gentle massage, encouraging spontaneous pushing, changing the position of the mother, applying hot dressings in the perineum, and preferring a simple perineal support when Ritgen maneuver is applied. During all this process, to promote the empowerment of the mother, by giving support and confidence.


The aforementioned interventions are referred as beneficial to the prevention of perineal trauma and to the practice of episiotomy. However, their application requires more evidence, as well as an effective divulgation of the results by the multidisciplinary teams and community with the presentation of the benefits to the health of women, family and society.

Keywords : Pregnancy; Delivery; Perineum; Nurse Midwives.

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