Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral
versión impresa ISSN 1699-6585
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the hypothesis that viral infection plays a role in the development of periodontitis. This relationship has been found mainly with the herpesvirus family, especially with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but also with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The herpesvirus infection generally involves a mild or asymptomatic primary phase followed by an asymptomatic latent phase interrupted sporadically by periods of activation, where viral replication and possibly clinical disease become manifest and which will in part, explain the episodic progressive nature of human periodontitis. In fact, herpesvirus reactivation is triggered by a number of immunosuppressing factors, some of which have also been shown to be risk indicators of periodontal disease and which could relate both patologies.
Palabras clave : Herpesviruses; cytomegalovirud; Epstein-Barr virus; periodontal disease; pathogenesis.