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Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral

versión On-line ISSN 2173-2345versión impresa ISSN 1889-836X

Resumen

DIAZ-ROMERO PAZ, R  y  REIMUNDE FIGUEIRA, P. Osteoporosis and spinal surgery: strategies for medical and surgical treatment. Rev Osteoporos Metab Miner [online]. 2018, vol.10, n.1, pp.41-54. ISSN 2173-2345.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/s1889-836x2018000100007.

The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients undergoing spinal surgery is estimated at 50% in women over 50 years, a higher figure than in the general population adjusted for age. Consequently, many authors recommend the systematic assessment and timely treatment of osteoporosis in most patients who are going to undergo arthrodesis.

The decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is the main factor in independent risk related to the failure of the instrumentation in spinal fusion surgeries.

Complications arising from spinal fusion are more frequent in osteoporotic patients over 65. The most frequent early complications are pullout or tearing pedicular screws, pedicular fracture and fracture by compression in the adjacent vertebral segment. After 3 months, the most frequent complications are pseudoarthrosis, fracture or mobilization of the bars, subsidence of vertebral intersomatic boxes and the kyphosis of the proximal joint.

There are some clinical trials of spinal arthrodesis surgery with perioperative treatment with alendronate, zoledronic acid, or teriparatide that have been shown to be effective in clinical improvement and increase in fusion rates.

Several modifications in the surgical arsenal may improve fusion rates and decrease surgical complications. Arthrodesis has been highlighted with cemented and expandable pedicle screws.

Finally, randomized clinical trials have shown that vertebral reinforcement treatments in osteoporotic vertebral fractures are beneficial in the short and long term.

Palabras clave : osteoporosis; vertebral arthrodesis; lumbar spine; spinal fusion.

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