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Ars Pharmaceutica (Internet)

On-line version ISSN 2340-9894

Abstract

NAVARRO-HORTAL, María Dolores; BERNAL-MORENO, Cristina  and  VARELA-LOPEZ, Alfonso. Macronutrient effect on animal models of periodontal disease: a systematic review. Ars Pharm [online]. 2018, vol.59, n.4, pp.235-250.  Epub Oct 19, 2020. ISSN 2340-9894.  http://dx.doi.org/10.30827/ars.v59i4.7317.

Objectives:

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic oral diseases worldwide and represents a major public health problem in many countries. Periodontal diseases include chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis that are usually due to the inflammation of gingiva caused by bacterial infections. Nutrition could exert a pivotal role due to its involvement in a number of inflammatory condition and diseases. Up to now, only some researchers have investigated the role of nutrients on the development and progression of periodontal disease, but the results obtained are often difficult to compare because of the heterogeneity of the studies.

Methods:

This paper systemically reviews the literature available on databases up to February 2018 on the relationship between macronutrients and the development and progression of periodontal diseases (periodontitis and gingivitis) in animals, with particular attention to the possible mechanisms involved in these pathologies.

Results:

A total of 5,484 publications were found in the Pubmed database. Title and abstract screening left 88 potential articles according to the selection criteria. No duplicated articles were found. Full-text screening and reading led to a final number of 32 articles.

Conclusions:

Among all the analyzed macronutrients, those that have any effect on oxidative stress or immune system seem to be important for the prevention of periodontal disease or periodontal disease improvement. On the one hand, there is evidence in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acid proportion in diet due to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich or hypercaloric diets increase oxidative stress or promote inflammation, so they must be avoided.

Keywords : diet; lipid; carbohydrates; protein.

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