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Ars Pharmaceutica (Internet)

On-line version ISSN 2340-9894


PATHAN, Inayat Bashir; DWIVEDI, Rashmi  and  AMBEKAR, Wahid. Formulation and evaluation of ketoprofen loaded chitosan nanogel for pain management: Ex-vivo and In-vivo study. Ars Pharm [online]. 2019, vol.60, n.2, pp.101-108.  Epub June 28, 2019. ISSN 2340-9894.


The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsion-based gel (nanogel) for transdermal delivery of ketoprofen. Among the various excipients tested, oleic acid, tween 80 and ethanol were selected as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant respectively.


The nanoemulsions region was identified by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams using aqueous phase titration. The prepared nanoemulsion was subjected to different thermodynamic stability study and the nanoemulsion that passed thermodynamic stability tests were evaluated for viscosity, refractive index, droplet size, transmission electron microscopy, and ex-vivo permeation study using human cadaver skin.


On the basis of evaluation C1 formulation, which consists of 3.09 % wt/wt of the oil phase, 60.54 % wt/wt of Smix and 36.36 % wt/wt of distilled water were selected as an optimized formulation and were converted to nanogel using chitosan as a gelling agent. Nanogel was evaluated for ex-vivo and in vivo study. The nanogel showed a significant increase in the anti-inflammatory activity as compared to conventional gel.


In conclusion, nanogel could be a promising system to improve transdermal delivery of the ketoprofen.

Keywords : Transdermal delivery; ketoprofen; nanogel.

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