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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Nutr. Hosp. vol.32 n.3 Madrid Sep. 2015

http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.3.8780 

ORIGINAL / Síndrome metabólico

 

Impacto de los acidos grasos de la dieta sobre el perfil lipidico, la sensibilidad a la insulina y la funcionalidad de las celulas β pancreaticas en sujetos diabeticos tipo 2

Impact of dietary fatty acids on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and functionality of pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetic subjects

 

 

Verónica Sambra Vásquez, Pamela Rojas Moncada, Karen Basfi-fer, Alejandra Valencia, Juana Codoceo, Jorge Inostroza, Fernando Carrasco y Manuel Ruz Ortiz

Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile).

 

 


RESUMEN

Introduccion: la calidad de las grasas podria influir en el control metabolico de los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2).
Objetivos: determinar la relacion entre la ingesta y la calidad de los acidos grasos de la dieta con el perfil lipidico, el control metabolico, la funcionalidad de las celulas β pancreaticas y la sensibilidad a la insulina en sujetos con DM2.
Metodos: se estudio a 54 sujetos con DM2, se realizaron determinaciones antropometricas, de composicion corporal e ingesta dietetica de lipidos, acidos grasos saturados (AGS), trans, monoinsaturados, poliinsaturados, omega 3, omega 6 y colesterol dietario. Se determinaron los parametros de laboratorio relacionados con el control metabolico (glicemia de ayuno, hemoglobina glicada, perfil lipidico). La secrecion de insulina y la sensibilidad a la insulina se determinaron con el test intravenoso de tolerancia a la glucosa modificado con insulina, basado en el modelo minimo de Bergman.
Resultados: se estudio a 28 hombres y 26 mujeres (edad 55,6 ± 6,8 anos; IMC 29,5 ± 3,7 kg/m2). Un 48% presentaba c-LDL < 100 mg/dl, el 12,9% de los hombres c-HDL > 40 mg/dl y el 7,4% de las mujeres c-HDL > 50 mg/dl. El 32% consumia > 10% de AGS y > 300 mg/dia de colesterol dietario. La ingesta de AGS y el porcentaje de calorias grasas (G%) mostraron una asociacion positiva significativa con la resistencia a la insulina y la glicemia. El G% predice en un 84% la variabilidad del c-VLDL.
Conclusiones: en los sujetos con DM2, una mayor ingesta de AGS y de grasas se asocia con valores superiores de glicemia y de resistencia a la insulina.

Palabras clave: Diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Test intravenoso de tolerancia a la glucosa. Grasa dietaria. Colesterol. Sensibilidad a la insulina.


ABSTRACT

Introduction: the quality of fats could influence the metabolic control of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2).
Objectives: to determine the relationship between intake and quality of dietary fatty acids to lipid profile, metabolic control, functionality of pancreatic β cells and insulin sensivity in subjects with DM2.
Methods: we studied 54 subjects with DM2, anthropometric measurements were performed, body composition and dietary lipid intake, saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega 3, omega 6 and dietary cholesterol. Laboratory parameters related to their metabolic control were determined (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile). The insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity was determined with the insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test according to the Bergman's minimal model.
Results: 28 men and 26 women were studied (BMI of 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age 55.6 ± 6.8 y.), 48% had LDL-C < 100 mg/dL, 12.9% of men c-HDL > 40 mg/dL and 7.4% of women c-HDL > 50 mg/dL. 32% consumed > 10% of AGS and > 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol. The SFA intake and percentage of calories from fat (G%) were significantly associated with insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose concentration. The G% predicted 84% variability on c-VLDL.
Conclusions: in patients with DM2 a greater intake of fat and saturated fatty acids it associated with greater fasting glycemia and insulin resistance.

Key words: Type-2 diabetes mellitus. Intravenous glucose tolerance test. Dietary fats. Cholesterol. Insulin sensitivity.


 

 

http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/nh/v32n3/20originalsindromemetabolico02.pdf

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