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Anales de Psicología

On-line version ISSN 1695-2294Print version ISSN 0212-9728

Anal. Psicol. vol.35 n.2 Murcia May. 2019  Epub May 01, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.2.332171 

History of Psychology

International positioning of the Spanish psychology journals

Macarena Tortosa-Pérez1  , Julia Osca-Lluch2  , Elisa Alfaro-Ferreres3  , Wilson López-López4 

1 Universidad Internacional de Valencia-VIU (Spain)

2 INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain)

3 Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

4 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Colombia)

Abstract

We present the results of the analysis of the dissemination and circulation of the number of Spanish journals in different national and international databases. This is a study of the journals that contain the main bibliographic databases until the year 2017. The increase of the presence of Spanish psychology journals in the different databases is an indicator that determines the growth and maturity of this discipline and provides an interesting view of the scientific activity in psychology and its situation in the international context. It shows that state policies and positioning campaigns of universities, associations and schools play a key role in the internationalization and positioning.

Key words: Scientific journals; Spanish psychology; Documentation; History of science; Difusión; Internationalization

Introduction

Scientific journals are the main tool on which researchers rely for the distribution of their research and results. In this sense, we should highlight the importance of studying scientific journals as the main tool for evaluating scientific research, too (Carbonell y Calvo, 2009, Franco-Suarez & Quevedo-Blasco, 2017; García-Pereira & Quevedo-Blasco, 2015; Olivas-Ávila, Musí-Lechuga, Quevedo-Blasco & Luna-Hernández, 2012; Quevedo-Blasco & López-López, 2011). The prominence of journals and the debate over the crucial role of communication in the scientific activity, the compelling necessity of publishing, the prominent role of articles in impact journals for the relevance of countries, institutions, communities, authors, and the debate over the mechanical assimilation of impact and excellence, are still gaining importance in the existing literature (Buela-Casal, Bermúdez, Sierra, Guillén-Riquelme & Quevedo-Blasco, 2015; Cancelo & Bastida, 2013; González-Sala, Osca-Lluch, Tortosa & Peñaranda, 2017b; Osca-Lluch, Tortosa, González-Sala & Tortosa, 2017).

The level of a scientific journal determines the diffusion and appreciation of articles published in it, as well as the recognition of their authors (Osca-Lluch, 2005). The fact of publishing in prestigious journals, as it is the case of the ones listed in Web of Science (WoS) has become a priority for Spanish researchers, if we take into account that, in the Spanish scientific and university policy, publishing in journals is a requirement needed for receiving the six-year research appraisals (“sexenios”), an endorsement in the evaluation of research groups who present their research project during competitive call for papers, which also represents a recognized merit for one’s own teaching career at university (González-Sala & Osca-Lluch, 2017). The three main Spanish agencies of evaluation1, responding to a general strategy aimed at increasing the international relevance of Spanish research (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, 2015; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, 2013a, 2013b; Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c) agree upon granting special importance to the number of publications in the Web of Science (WoS) and to the impact factor that such publications hold (Jiménez-Contreras, Robinson-García & Cabezas-Clavijo, 2011; Moreno-Pulido, López-González, Rubio, Saúl & Sánchez-Elvira-Paniagua, 2013; Quintas-Froufe, 2016; Ruíz-Pérez, Martín-Martín & Delgado-López-Cózar, 2015; Ruíz-Pérez, Delgado-López-Cózar & Jiménez- Contreras, 2010).

As a matter of fact, more and more countries have consecrated themselves to an alleged “quality culture”, thus reducing quality to the place held by a journal within the impact factor rankings. But, what is a good quality article? The one that has impact factor. Are there different quality levels? The ones established by quartiles. “Q1” is excellent, “Q2” is very good, “Q3” is good, “Q4” is reasonable, and “no Q” lacks quality. This “impact factor tyranny” (García-García, 2014) is not always well understood, and not always well applied, according to its creator (Garfield, 2003, 2006); the internationalization2 defines the state educational policy in many countries (Bregman, López-López & García, 2015; Polanco-Carrasco, Gallegos, Salas & López-López, 2017; Zych & Buela-Casal, 2010), and, concretely, in Spain3 (Tortosa, Santolaya & Civera, 2015).

About the effects of these policies, both sides can receive numerous conflicting interpretations. On one side, we have those who think that the current quality system has contributed to the reduction of arbitrariness in the selection of projects and in the professional career of professors and/or researchers, as well as to the improvement of the professional quality of teaching and researching, and therefore of science in Spain, thus helping its process of internationalization (Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas, 2016; FECYT, 2017a, 2017b; Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2016b, 2016c). On the other side, we have those who consider that the pressure required for publishing on first and second quartile journals has even led to the falsification and manipulation of researches, and of researchers’ curricula. For some people, this constitutes the characterization of a pathological disorder suffered by science (Buela-Casal, 2014), or at least a continuous “source of frustration” (Laufer, 2013).

Regardless of the position taken, what is certain is that no one has doubts anymore about the need of having an “impact index way of thinking”; the political correctness, if one wants to progress in the professional career, cannot be despised without being sentenced to academic and/or research stagnation, or even to the expulsion from the system (Fernández-Ríos & Rodríguez-Díaz, 2014). In many countries, there has been a shift from the so frequently cited “publish or perish” to the “publish in impact factor journals or perish”, in spite of how sensitive the impact factor is to the language or country where the research is done, or where the journal is edited (González-Alcaide, Valderrama-Zurián & Aleixandre-Benavent, 2012; Osca-Lluch, Tortosa, González-Sala, y Tortosa, 2017). In conclusion, it seems to be unquestionable that, despite of the existing controversy (American Society for Cell Biology, 2013; Hicks, Wouters, de Waltman, Rijcke & Rafols, 2015), scientific journals are indeed the referents when it comes to quality.

There is no scientific culture without journals, even though not all of them have the same reputation and influence in the scientific community (Osca-Lluch, González-Sala, Fonseca y Civera, 2017; Quevedo-Blasco y López-López, 2011). Their recognition mostly depends on their quality and visibility (Osca-Lluch, 2012). The number and level of scientific publications constitutes the indicator of capability, trajectory and scientific quality of countries, thematic areas or research groups. The level of a journal’s international visibility is an important indicator of its quality, and it is being more and more valued in rankings and more and more considered by evaluation agencies.

In the present article, it is our intention to get to know the position occupied by Spanish psychology journals in the JCR’s databases, considering the strategic role they play in the scientific and technological system of a country. Publishing in journals belonging to JCR’s quartiles has become the “obscure object of desire” of scholars, researchers and even practitioners of Spanish psychology, since the “articles in Q”, especially those in the first quartiles, are the key to entrance first, consolidation later, and, finally, promotion, in the professional career of the Spanish scientific system.

Methods

Analysis and Materials

In order to collect the currently highest number of existing Spanish journals, we used different sources of information. The databases which were consulted, both national and international, were the followings: Dialnet, ISOC-Psicología, JCR (SCI and SSCI), Psicodoc, PsycInfo, Scielo, Scopus and SJR.

Results

There is an overall number of psychology journals edited in Spain every year, and included in one or more than one database among those that we consulted for the present study. The data confirm a growth in the number of Spanish journals of psychology edited in Spain, in comparison with previous years (see table 1).

Table 1: Evolution of the number of psychology journals edited in Spain throughout the history of the discipline. 

In figure 1, we show the distribution of the number of Spanish psychology journals which can be found in each one of the sources that were used. As it can be observed, the three databases indexing a higher number of Spanish journals are, indeed, Spanish themselves. The first place is held by the ISOC-Psicología database, edited by the Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - CSIC), which includes a total number of 125 psychology journals; the second place goes to the Psicodoc database, edited by the Official Association of Psychologists from Madrid (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid), with 84 journals, and the third place goes to the Dialnet database, created by the University of La Rioja, which counts 83 journals. In the case of international databases, the first place is held by the PsycInfo database, with 33 Spanish journals. This database, published by the American Psychological Association, is considered as one of the most relevant within the field of psychology, as it also contains information on similar sciences such as psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and education, among other disciplines. The second place, with 22 Spanish journals of psychology, goes to the Scopus database, owned by the Elsevier company, which fuels the SJR Impact Factor Index (SCImago Journal & Country Rank). The third place, with 19 journals4, is held by the Web of Science (WOS) database, owned by Clarivate Analytics, which fuels the JCR Impact Factor Index.

Figure 1 Circulation of journals in databases. 

The current investment in the edition of psychology journals is quite high, even though the costs have been kept relatively down thanks to the new technologies available (Official Association of Madrid Psychologists - Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid - 2016; General Psychology Council of Spain - Consejo General de la Picología de España - 2017). Almost every journal is also available in Open Access, which, undoubtedly, makes them more accessible and helps with their distribution and circulation. Despite the rise in the number of electronic journals, the paper format is still the main choice, with quite many journals available in both formats, many of them published in English. The free access and the increasing use of English undoubtedly contributes to the internationalization; in addition to this, more and more journals are being included in impact factor indexes (Osca-Lluch, Miguel, González, Peñaranda & Quiñones, 2013).

The Council and the College of Psychologists are responsible, through the edition, co-edition and co-sponsoring, for around 20% of Spanish journals on psychology (many of which are included in impact factor indexes), in addition to publishing guides and other documents. Together with universities as a whole, the collegial holding is, nowadays, a key referent in current Spanish psychology. Moreover, its strategy is helping the international circulation and positioning of academic and professional psychology, which get closer and closer to each other, as well as it is helping their consumption, since many journals are available in Open Access or in full text databases; very few of them are limited to the “private/ collegial only” area.

The number of Spanish journals included in the impact factor index compiled by JCR (obtained from the SCI and SSCI databases, included in WOS) has grown from one at the beginning of the millennium to fifteen in the year 2016 (see Figure 2). Seven of them are edited, co-edited or co-sponsored by Associations of Psychologists (Anales de Psicología, Psicothema, Clínica y Salud, The Spanish Journal of Psychology, Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Psychosocial Intervention and The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context), scientific societies (Spanish Society of Legal and Forensic Psychology - Sociedad Española de Psicología Jurídica y Forense) and universities (Murcia, Oviedo, Complutense); in many cases, the journals are totally or partially edited by private publishers, such as Cambridge University Press or Elsevier. Three more journals (Infancia y Aprendizaje, Estudios de Psicología, Revista de Psicología Social) are edited within the frame of the publishing cooperation agreement between the “Infancia y Aprendizaje” (“Childhood and Learning”) Foundation and the Taylor & Francis group, under the Routledge publishing brand. Elsevier publishes The International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, started in 2001 by the Spanish Association of Behavioral Psychology (Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual), and the Revista de Psicodidáctica, started by the University of the Basque Country (Universidad del País Vasco). Psicológica, published at the University of Valencia, has started to be published by deGrutyer in 2018. The VECA Foundation for the Advance of Clinic Behavioral Psychology (Fundación VECA para el Avance de la Psicología Clínica Conductual - FUNVECA) edits the Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual journal, official expression organ of the Ibero-American Psychology Association of Clinic and Health (Asociación Psicológica Iberoamericana de Clínica y Salud - APICSA). The Revista de Psicología del Deporte (Journal of Sport Psychology) has been sponsored and published at different universities (Illes Balears, Almería, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona).

Figure 2 Evolution in the number of Spanish psychology journals in JCR. 

The rise has been progressive, going from 1 in 2001, to 4 in 2007, 5 in 2008, 8 in 2009, 11 in 2010, 12 in 2012, till reaching the number 15 in 2017. The role of publishing companies is also remarkable, which seems to point out that a scientific journal can also be a business, for both universities and collegial structures, the latter working either in an exclusive way or through different forms of co-editing and co-sponsoring.

Moreover, which is remarkable as for the future premises they hold, it should be said that there is a good number of journals that are growing fast, as indicated by the Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI), a new database by WOS created in November 2015. Here, all journals which are still being evaluated for their hypothetical inclusion in the Web of Science Core Collections (Cahué, 2016; Repiso, 2015, 2016) are gathered.

Only 3 out of 165 Spanish journals included in the first review list by the ESCI, published in November 2015 (after the UK, the USA, Canada, Holland and Italy) were about psychology: European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education, Quaderns de Psicología and Acción Psicológica, the three of them edited by universities. One year later, there were 7 out of 402 Spanish journals of psychology. Even though their percentage representation is less relevant, it is certain that four more journals have been included in the list: Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, Clínica Contemporánea, Revista de Historia de la Psicología, and Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, the four of them edited or co-edited by the Council or by the Official Association of Madrid Psychologists.

In 2017 this tendency was maintained: by April 19, 2017 there were already 15 Spanish journals on psychology, more than twice than in 2016, included among the 531 Spanish journals indexed by ESCI. The data suggest that 8 new journals were included: Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, Ansiedad y Estrés, Anuario de Psicología, Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, Papeles del Psicólogo, Psicología Educativa, Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes and Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte. Again universities, together with the Association of Psychologists from Madrid and the General Spanish Council of Psychology, and with societies; some journals were discontinuously published by Elsevier, a company which holds a main role within the field of Spanish psychology, even though the prominence of corporate companies is less relevant.

A third of these publications (Anales de Psicología, Estudios de Psicología, Psicothema, Spanish Journal of Psychology, Psychosocial Intervention) are multidisciplinary; around 20% (Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, Clínica y Salud) are ascribed in the field of clinic psychology; educational psychology (Infancia y Aprendizaje, Revista de Psicodidáctica) and applied psychology (Revista de Psicología del Deporte, Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology) share almost 27%; and social psychology (Revista de Psicología Social), experimental psychology (Psicológica) and law (European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context) explain the remaining 20%. Not even when considering this whole number it seems possible to define a body of journals that may explain the needs of thousands of psychologists somehow linked to Spanish universities through different types of contracts, and the tens of thousands of practitioners, post-graduate and PhD students, who are, in many cases, required to publish at least one article in “Q” as first authors.

Discussion

It seems undeniable that there is a strong relationship between the level of institutional development and professional establishment and the journals’ characteristics. A key indicator of disciplinary maturity is the growth and diversification of journals; another indicator seems to be their internationalization and position. A relevant amount of information generated by practitioners of a science is spread by means of journals, that give it immediacy and can displace it across countries, something that is clearly more difficult in some publishing formats.

In 2015, Spain was responsible for 3,2% (Scopus) or 3.8% (WOS) of the worldwide scientific production published around the globe; its production was cited 30% (Scopus) or 20% (WOS) more than the global average. The impact analysis deserves a special remark. Scopus shows that the percentage of very cited/excellency publications is around 13%, and that the percentage of articles published in every field’s best journals is 51.1% (53.4% according to WOS). The percentage of scientific documents published in cooperation with other countries is high (47.1 according to Scopus, and 52.2% according to WOS) (FECYT, 2016b, 2017a, 2017b). Overall, Spain holds the 10th place among the most productive countries in the field of research (FECYT, 2016a).

Table 2: Distribution of Spanish journals in the JCR of (SSCI and SCI)* according to year and quartile. 

In this context where, among the main indicators of the Spanish scientific production according to their fields5, the documents published in excellence journals define the key indicators, where is psychology placed? It surely has a good position. If we use the indicators provided by Scopus6, Psychology holds a prominent place in some indicators, even though it is overall placed in the 21st position out of 27 sciences (FECYT, 2016c). In these reports, Psychology is still included in the field of Social Sciences, and it is included among the 10 fields on which Spain has focused its production throughout the past 10 years. It produces around 10% more documents than the world average (FECYT, 2016b); moreover, with an upward tendency, in the years 2010- 2014 it gained, in fact, more than half point in comparison to the period 2004-2009.

Publishing in prestigious journals, as it is the case of publications collected by the WOS (in any database, and, in our case, in SCI and SSCI), and especially in those with a high impact factor (JCR) that occupy the 1st and 2nd quartiles, has become a priority for Spanish psychologists. It has more and more influence on the publishing strategies chosen by researchers, who refer more and more exclusively to high-prestige journals (González-Sala & Osca-Lluch, 2017). Because of this, the current control of scientific journals can be a strategic tool when it comes to promoting or enabling the impact and visibility of a research developed by certain researchers (Granadino, García-Carpintero & Plaza, 2006).

Concretely speaking, the current legislation establishes that, referring to Area number 7. Social, Political, Behavioral and Education Sciences, and concretely concerning Psychology, that: “as a guidance, it is established that, in order to achieve a positive evaluation in the fields of Psychology, at least four out of five contributions shall be articles published in journals which comply with the criteria explained in section 3.a) and three of them published in an impact journal, placed in the 1st or 2nd quartile of its category.” The contributions collected in the aforementioned section 3.a) only include “articles published in journals whose validity is recognized, meaning included in the fields list of scientific areas by the Journal Citation Reports (Social Sciences Edition) and Journal Citation Reports (Science Edition) by the Web of Science.”

The procedure and merits of the ACADEMIA program of national accreditation for the access to university teaching positions goes in the same direction, sometimes raising the number of Level 1 articles to several dozens (ANECA 2018).

For what concerns the Q, 9 of the 15 journals are placed in Q4, 1 in Q3, and 2 in Q1. This means that, with the criteria managed by the CNEAI, only 5 of the 12 journals satisfy the basic criterion used during the last call for the six-year-term recognition (resolution of November 23rd, 2017, by the National Assessment Commission of Research Activity, by means of which the specific criteria for each evaluation field are approved).

In this environment of growing impact factor tyranny (García-García, 2014), the use and expansion of the scientific publishing market in digital formats has been a key factor for the spread of knowledge through the internet, and through the English language. It has dramatically changed the distribution model of scientific knowledge, a model which we must know and use. A change that presents challenges in the evaluation of impact and quality of researching activities, its main indicators. For decades, scientific knowledge has been spread by means of paper journals whose commercial property has ended up in the hands of big publishing houses, that own the authorship of an increasing amount of referential scientific production every year.

The increasing use of internet has caused important changes in this quite closed market, one of them far-reaching the creation of free access databases such as Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online) or Red ALyC (Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y El Caribe - Web of Latin American and Caribbean Scientific Journals), another being a necessary update of quality indicators for journals, authors, works, institutions etc. Spanish psychology, both academic and professional, was able to adjust to these changes through its own programs. Many journals have reframed their publishing policies. Many plurilateral meetings have taken place, organized by those responsible for the edition of psychology journals, in order to define a global strategy (p.ej., Infocop, 2008). The first step is always producing quality documents, but it is no less important to adjust the publications to the rigid formal requirements proposed by the international databases, or to reinforce the assessment and reviewers´ selection protocol, or assaulting7 Thomson Reuters, in order to include the highest possible number of articles and journals and to enhance their impact, which also contributes to the improvement of regional visibility, internationalization and positioning.

It has been repeatedly asked, without any success, by universities and Conference of Psychology Deans from Spanish Universities, that the JCR should not be the only and exclusive impact factor taken into account by the Spanish agencies of evaluation and research in Psychology; in fact, the SJR by Scopus is also supposed to hold the same (or even superior) quality, and it includes more Spanish journals (Osca-Lluch, Miguel, González, Peñaranda, y Quiñones, 2013; Osca-Lluch, Tortosa, González-Sala y Tortosa, 2017). More controversial topics have been recently discussed. One of them refers to the language of the publications, since it is difficult to choose between reaching out to the wide Spanish-speaking community or giving visibility to the research in other countries8. Multilingual and English editions look like safe choices, even though we should take better care of the specific language/s of non-English-speaking countries, since they could eventually end up disappearing. Luckily, online edition of journals through free access platforms such as OJS (Open Journal System) already allow the simultaneous edition of articles in more than one language. Moreover, we should fight for the positioning of research produced in Spanish-speaking countries, since many authors tend to avoid it not because it lacks quality or proximity, but because it lacks impact factor.

It is not less relevant to focus on the topic of the relationship between academic and professional worlds, subject to the communication policies of the council and Associations, or even the very same definition of “Spanish Psychology Journal”, since, due to both globalization and to corporate policies, an increasing number of Spanish journals is controlled by foreign publishing houses, and they are therefore published in English only, in both English and Spanish, or with very extensive English summaries.

Many scientific journals of psychology are supported by big companies or associations, which provide the resources necessary for the good functioning of periodical publications. In Spain, there are many journals which are adhering to this model, even though universities are still a good alternative option. However, there is a very solid structure which directly or indirectly involves the co-editioning or co-sponsoring format of a relevant number of journals. The General Council of Spanish Psychology and some of its Associations, especially those placed in Madrid, are editing journals which responds to professional needs only, but also journals that fulfill the international quality standards, from an autonomous position of management entity. To sum up, an ambitious project is being brought up, and it is oriented towards the construction, visibility and consolidation of the identity of Spanish psychology, which is increasingly written in English.

We are facing a situation that pushes us towards either publishing in journals placed among the first quartiles of other specialties, which enhances the pluridisciplinarity, or publishing in journals edited in other countries, which clearly enhances the internationalization and positioning of authors, research groups, and universities. In addition to this, the general tendency is to aim at the English-speaking market, the most represented in what concerns the overall number of publications and the position in quartiles, which harms those journals that choose to publish in their country´s language (Osca-Lluch, Tortosa, González-Sala & Tortosa, 2017). It is a situation that acts against the production in other languages, and enhances the weakening of journals that choose non-English linguistic environments or the publication in co-official state languages; yet it is also a situation which seems to force the consideration of strategies of international cooperation, and to seek a better position in what concerns the Spanish reference indexes. It also implies a mandatory development of internationalization strategies to be considered by those who are responsible of the journals´ edition.

The current data seem to point out that the field of Psychology in Spain is about to take a leap in what concerns the number of JCR journals, due to the strong boost of journals in the ESCI and JCR. The number, characteristics and position, both nationally and internationally, of Spanish psychology journals show a reality that is quite different from the one we witnessed only 15 years ago, or during the last quarter of the XX century. However, as it is shown in table 2, when we observe the position occupied by journals in the JCR database, it is possible to observe that there is much to be done yet, even though 5 out of 12 journals already hold privileged places (Q1 and Q2), and two of them belong to the first quartile.

There is no doubt that we have moved forward, and that we are witnessing a situation that is very different from the first years of the XXI century (Osca-Lluch, Civera, Tortosa, Quiñones, Peñaranda, & López, 2005). Despite of this, there is a lot to be done in order for Spanish Psychology to achieve a good international position, even though we cannot deny that a great advancement has been done during the past few years. Also, we cannot say that this process has been guided by fortune or luck: it responds to strategies, not only promoted by the State, but also generated by universities, associations and professional associations, which are growing closer and closer among themselves, and this constitutes yet another big change within the field of Spanish Psychology.

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1 Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Prospectiva – National Agency for Evaluation and Perspective - (ANEP), Comisión Nacional Evaluadora de la Actividad Investigadora – National Comité for the Evaluation of Research Activity - (CNEAI) and Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación – National Agency for the Evaluation of Quality and Accreditation - (ANECA).

2 We will not discuss this elusive concept (Buela-Casal, 2001), and neither how the index of it is calculated (Buela-Casal, Perakakis, Taylor & Checa, 2006; Buela-Casal, Zych, Sierra & Bermudez, 2007; Buela-Casal & Zich, 2012; Zych & Buela-Casal, 2010). Operationally, we reduce it to numbers in bases and international reference indexes for the Evaluation Agencies.

3Since the Sorbonne (25/5/1998) and Bologna (19/6/1999) declarations, a huge number of documents, which was triggered by the organic law number 6/2001 on Universities (repealing and substituting the current law on University’s Reformation), frames a new scientific space in Europe. This space is defined, among others, by the allegedly objective quality policies (Tortosa, Santolaya & Civera, 2015).

4We counted “Estudios de Psicología, Infancia y Aprendizaje and Revista de Psicología Social” as Spanish journals, even though they have not been considered Spanish publications by the JCR database since 2013.

5The Spanish foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT), in its reports, makes a distinction among 27 fields: Medicine, Engineering, Computer Science, Physics and Astronomy, Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Materials Sciences, Chemistry, Agriculture and Biologic Sciences, Social Science, Mathematics, Environmental Science, Planetary and Earth Science, Chemical Engineering, Arts and Humanities, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, Immunology and Microbiology, Neuroscience, Psychology, Business, Management and Accounting, Nursing, Economy, Econometrics and Finances, Health Professions, Decision Science, Multidisciplinary, Veterinary, Odontology.

6 The data offered by FECYT about the scientific production in WOS are not comparable, since the field is Psychology/Psychiatry, and another field of Neuroscience and Behavior is added.

7Onex Corporation (“Onex”) (TSX: OCX) and Baring Private Equity Asia (“Baring Asia”) bought the intellectual property and the scientific business of Thomas Reuter for $3.55 billions, on October 3rd 2016 (Baring Private Equity Asia, 2016). It now operates with the new brand Clarivate Analytics.

8Only 3 out of 30 journals of legal psychology included in the WOS or Scopus databases are not, regardless of the country, published in English; one of them even publishes in English and in the language of the country it belongs to (Osca-Lluch, Tortosa, González-Sala y Tortosa, 2017).

Received: May 24, 2018; Revised: August 01, 2018; Accepted: November 01, 2018

Correspondence address (Dirección para correspondencia): Macarena Tortosa-Pérez. Universidad Internacional de Valencia (Spain). E-mail: macarena.tortosap@campusviu.es

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