SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

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Referencias del artículo

SANTESMASES, María Jesús  y  GRADMANN, Christoph. Circulation of antibiotics: an introduction. Dynamis [online]. 2011, vol.31, n.2, pp.293-303. ISSN 0211-9536.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362011000200002.

    1. Current development in the history of medical drugs is shown in some recent publications. Regarding the history of infections, see Worboys, Michael; Condrau, Flurin, eds. Tuberculosis, then and now: interdisciplinary perspectives on a post-modern plague. Montreal: McGill University Press; 2010. [ Links ]

    Quirke, Vivian; Slinn, Judy, eds. Perspectives on twentieth-century pharmaceuticals. Oxford: Peter Lang; 2010. [ Links ]

    Bonah, Christian; Masutti, Christophe; Rasmussen, Anne; Simon, Jonathan, eds. Harmonizing drugs: standards in 20th-century pharmaceutical history. Paris: Glyphe; 2009. [ Links ]

    Simon, Jonathan; Gradmann, Christoph, eds. Evaluating and standardizing therapeutic agents, 1890-1950 New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2010. [ Links ]

    Tone, Andrea; Watkins, Elisabeth Siegle, eds. Medicating modern America: prescription drug in history. New York: New York University Press; 2007. [ Links ]

    Bonah, Christian; Rasmussen, Anne, eds. Histoire et médicament aux 19e et 20e siècles. Paris: Gliphe; 2005. [ Links ]

    2. Hobby, Gladys. Penicillin. Meeting the challenge. New Haven-London: Yale University Press; 1985. [ Links ]

    MacFarlane, Gwyn. Alexander Fleming, the man and the myth. London: Chatto and Windus; 1984. [ Links ]

    Bud, Robert. Penicillin. Triumph and tragedy. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press; 2007. [ Links ]

    3. Wainwright, Milton; Swan, Harold T. C. G. Paine and the earliest surviving clinical records of penicillin therapy. Medical History. 1986; 30: 42-56. [ Links ]

    4. Brown, Kevin. Penicillin man: Alexander Fleming and the antibiotic revolution. Gloucestershire: Sutton; 2004. [ Links ]

    5. Hobby, n. 2, and also the contributions to Parascandola, John, ed. The history of antibiotics: a simposium. Madison: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy; 1980. [ Links ]

    See also Marks, Harry. The progress of experiment: science and therapeutic reform in the United States, 1900-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997; [ Links ]

    Weatherall, Mark. In search of a cure. A history of pharmaceutical discovery. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1990; [ Links ]

    Parascandola, John. John Mahoney and the introduction of penicillin to treat syphilis. Pharmacy in History. 43; 2001: 3-13. [ Links ]

    6. Marks, n. 5; 1997; Podolsky, Scott H. Antibiotics and the social history of the controlled clinical trial. Journal for the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 2010; 65: 327-367. [ Links ]

    7. Swann, John P. Academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry: cooperative research in twentieth century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1988. [ Links ]

    Quirke, Viviane. Collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry: changing relationships in Britain and France. Abingdon-New York: Routledge; 2008. [ Links ]

    8. Bud, n. 2; Lesch, John E. The first miracle drugs: how the sulfa drugs transformed medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007; [ Links ]

    Greenwood, David. Antimicrobial drugs. Chronicle of a twentieth-century triumph. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008, [ Links ]

    10. On penicillin shortages of its early days, see Adam, David P. "The greatest good to the greatest number". Penicillin rationing on the American home front, 1940-1945. New York-Bern: Peter Lang; 1991. [ Links ]

    11. For an introduction see Summers, William C. Microbial drug resistance: a historical perspective. In: Wax, Richard G.; Lewis, Kim; Salyers, Abigail A.; Taber, Harry, eds. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008, p. 1-9; [ Links ]

    Tansey, E. M.; Reynolds, L. A., eds. Welcome witness seminar. Volume 6. Post-penicillin antibiotics. From acceptance to resistance? London: The Welcome Trust; 2000. At http://www.ucl.ac.uk/silva/histmed/downloads/c20th_group/wit6.pdf. [ Links ]

    See also Creager, Angela N. H. Adaptation or selection? Old issues and new stakes on the post-war debates over bacterial drug resistance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 2007; 38: 159-190; [ Links ]

    12. Hillier, Kathryn. Babies and bacteria: phage typing, bacteriologists, and the birth of infection control. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 2006; 80: 733-761; [ Links ]

    13. Quirke, Viviane. War and change in the pharmaceutical industry: a comparative study of Britain and France in the twentieth century. Enterprises et Histoire. 2004; 36: 64-83. [ Links ]

    On the war against diseases see the case of polio in Smith, Jane S. Patenting the sun: polio and the Salk vaccine. New York: Anchor Books; 1990; [ Links ]

    Creager, Angela N. H. The war against polio. In: The life of a virus: tobacco mosaic virus as an experimental model, 1930-1965. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2002, p. 141-184. [ Links ]

    On primary care as an international agreement promoted by the World Health Organisation, see Health for all beyond 2000. Declaration of Alma-Ata. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978. At http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf. [ Links ]

    On the declaration see Navarro, Vicente. A critique of the ideological and political positions of the Willy Brandt report and the WHO Alma Ata declaration. Social Science and Medicine. 1984; 18: 467-474. [ Links ]

    15. Worboys, Michael. Was there a bacteriological revolution in late nineteenth-century medicine? Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 2007; 38: 20-42; [ Links ]

    MacFarlane, John T.; Worboys, Michael. The changing management of acute bronchitis in Britain, 1940-1970: the impact of antibiotics. Medical History. 2007; 52: 47-72. [ Links ]

    16. Levy, Stuart B. The antibiotic paradox. How miracle drugs are destroying the miracle. New York-London: Plenum Press; 1992; [ Links ]

    Bourdelais, Patrice. Epidemics laid low: a history of what happened in rich countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2006 (2003). [ Links ]

    17. Chen, Wai. The laboratory as business. Sir Almroth Wright's vaccines programme and the construction of penicillin. In: Cunningham, Andrew; Williams, Perry, eds. The laboratory revolution in medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992, p. 245-292. [ Links ]

    18. Liebenau, Jonathan. The British success with penicillin. Social Studies of Science. 1987; 17: 69-86. [ Links ]

    19. Burns, Marlene. Scientific research in the Second World War. The case for Bacinol, Dutch penicillin. In: Maas, Ad; Hooijmaijers, Hans, eds. Scientific research in World War II. What scientists did in the war? London-NewYork: Routledge; 2009, p. 44-61; [ Links ]

    Bartmann, Wilhelm. Zwischen Tradition und Fortschritt. Aus der Geschichte der Pharmabereiche von Bayer, Hoechst und Schering von 1935-1975. Stuttgart: Steiner; 2003; [ Links ]

    Shama, Gilbert; Reinarz, Jonathan. Allied intelligence reports on wartime German penicillin research and production. Historical Studies on the Physical and Biological Sciences. 2002; 32: 347-367. [ Links ]

    On France, see Gaudilliére, Jean-Paul. Inventer la biomedicine: la France, l'Amerique et la production des savoirs du vivant. Paris: La Découverte; 2002, chapter 1; [ Links ]

    Gaudilliere, Jean-Paul; Gausemeier, Bern. Moulding national research systems: the introduction of penicillin to Germany and France. Osiris. 2005; 20: 180-202. [ Links ]

    On Spain, see Santesmases, María Jesús. Delivering penicillin: the clinic, the hero and industrial production in Spain, 1943-1952. In: Quirke, Vivian; Slinn, Judy, eds. Perspectives on twentieth-century pharmaceuticals. Oxford: Peter Lang; 2010, p. 91-117. [ Links ]

    23. Gaudillière, Jean-Paul; Hess, Volker, eds. Ways of regulating: therapeutic agents between plants, shops and consulting rooms. Berlin: Max Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte; 2009. [ Links ]

    26. Regarding non-fiction, see the history of Hitler taking penicillin during WWII. Wainwright, M. Hitler's penicillin. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 2004; 47: 189-198. [ Links ]

    27. Tone; Watkins, n. 1. Daemmrich, Arthur. Pharmacopolitics: drug regulation in the United States and Germany. Chapel Hill-London: University of Carolina Press; 2004. [ Links ]

    28. Bonah, Christian; Gaudillière; Jean-Paul; Gradmann, Christoph; Hess, Volker. Standard drugs and drug standards. A comparative historical study of pharmaceuticals in the 20th century. In: Bonah; Masutti; Rasmussen; Simon, eds., n. 1 p. 17-27. [ Links ]

    29. The set of papers presented at the workshop was uploaded at http://drughistory.eu/downloads/Madrid_Preprint.pdf [ Links ]