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Referencias del artículo

GRADMANN, Christoph. Magic bullets and moving targets: antibiotic resistance and experimental chemotherapy, 1900-1940. Dynamis [online]. 2011, vol.31, n.2, pp.305-321. ISSN 0211-9536.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362011000200003.

    1. On antibiotics: Bud, Robert. Penicillin: triumph and tragedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007; [ Links ]

    Lesch, John E. The first miracle drugs: how the sulfa drugs transformed medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007. [ Links ]

    On resistance: Summers, William C. Microbial drug resistance: a historical perspective. In: Wax, Richard G.; Lewis, Kim; Salyers, Abigail A.; Taber, Harry, eds. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008, p. 1-9; [ Links ]

    Straand, Jørund; Gradmann, Christoph; Lindbaek, Morton; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov. Antibiotic development and resistance. In: Heggenhougen, Kris; Quah, Stella, eds. International encyclopaedia of public health. San Diego: Academic Press; 2008, p. 200-211. [ Links ]

    2. Brock, Thomas D. The emergence of bacterial genetics. Cold Spring Harbour: Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press; 1990; [ Links ]

    Creager, Angela N. H. Adaption or selection? Old issues and new stakes in the postwar debates over bacterial drug resistance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 2007; 38: 159-190. [ Links ]

    3. Schlossberger, Hans. Chemotherapie der Infektionskrankheiten. In: Kolle, Wilhelm; Kraus, Rudolf; Uhlenhuth, Paul, eds. Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen. Jena-Berlin-Wien: Gustav Fischer-Urban und Schwarzenberg; 1930, p. 551-730. [ Links ]

    4. Fischl, Viktor; Fischl, Lili. Arzneifestigkeit, Aviditat, Interferenz. Zeitschrift für Immunitatsforschung und experimentelle Therapie. 1934; 83: 324-335. [ Links ]

    5. Browning, C. H.; Gulbransen, R. The treatment of relapses in experimental trypanosome infections: cures after repeated relapses without increasing the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 1928; 31 (1): 134-136. [ Links ]

    6. If we take the Journal of Bacteriology as an example, the term resistance is fully absent in the 1920s, in the 1930s it would appear in two different meanings related to either bodily or bacterial resistance. Only from the 1940s would it be exclusively employed to describe a trait of a microbe. Moberg, Carol L. Launching the antibiotic era. Personal accounts of the discovery and use of the first antibiotics. New York: The Rockefeller University Press; 1990, p. 563. [ Links ]

    7. Eagle, Harry; Magnuson, Harold J. The spontaneous development of arsenic-resistance in Trypanosoma equiperdum, and its mechanism. Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1944; 82 (2): 137-151. [ Links ]

    9. Thomas, H. Wolferstan. Some experiments in the treatment of trypanosomiasis. British Medical Journal. 1905; 2317: 1140-1143. [ Links ]

    Dale, Henry H. Chemotherapy. Physiological Reviews. 1925; 3 (3): 359-393, [ Links ]

    10. On Atoxyl: Riethmiller, Steven. Ehrlich, Bertheim, and Atoxyl. Bulletin of the History of Chemistry. 1999; 23: 28-33. [ Links ]

    11. Lyons, Maryinez. African Trypanosomiasis. In: Kiple, Kenneth F., ed. The Cambridge world history of human disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993, p. 552-561. [ Links ]

    David Bruce has been credited with that discovery, but not without dispute: Boyd, John. Sleeping sickness: the Castellani-Bruce controversy. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 1973; 28: 93-110
    [ Links ]

    12. There had been predecessors starting with arsenical acid in 1899, but they were either less effective or too toxic (or both) (Dale, n. 9, p. 373). Pearce, Louise; Brown, Wade H. Experimental trypanosomiasis: its application in chemotherapeutic investigations. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1918; 28: 109-147 for an overview of substances used in experimental research on trypanosomes. [ Links ]

    13. Scheube, B. Die Krankheiten der warmen Länder. Ein Handbuch für Ärzte. 3 ed. Jena: Gustav Fischer; 1910 (1896). [ Links ]

    14. Eckart, Wolfgang U. Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus in Deutschland 1884-1945. Paderborn: Schöningh; 1997, p. 505-13. [ Links ]

    Tropenabteilung, Bayer Leverkusen. Die Chemotherapie der Schlafkrankheit. Leverkusen: Bayer; 1938. [ Links ]

    Lyons, Maryinez. The colonial disease: a social history of sleeping sickness in northern Zaire, 1900-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992. [ Links ]

    15. Gradmann, Christoph. Laboratory disease: Robert Koch's medical bacteriology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Universiy Press; 2009: 213-225. [ Links ]

    16. Ehrlich, Paul. Das Sauerstoffbedürfnis des Organismus. Eine farbenanalytische Studie. Diss. Med. Medical Faculty, Friederich-Wilhelms-Universitat zu Berlin; 1885. [ Links ]

    17. For introductions see Prüll, Cay-Rüdiger; Maehle, Andreas-Holger; Halliwell, Robert Francis. A short history of the drug receptor concept. Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave; 2009, p. 16-40; [ Links ]

    Silverstein, Arthur. Paul Ehrlich's receptor immunology: the magnificent obsession. San Diego: Academic Press; 2003. [ Links ]

    18. Ehrlich's relevant papers are in volume 3 of his collected papers, Ehrlich, Paul. Gesammelte Arbeiten. Zusammengestellt und herausgegeben von F. Himmelweit. 3 vols. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer; 1956-1957. [ Links ]

    19. Ehrlich, Paul. Address delivered at the Dedication of the Georg-Speyer-Haus. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1906), p. 53-63 (59). [ Links ]

    21. Better than most bacteria: Ehrlich, Paul; Shiga, Kiyoshi. Farbentherapeutische Versuche bei Trypanosomenerkrankung. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1904), p. 24-37 (24). [ Links ]

    23. On the testing of various anti-trypansomal preparations by Robert Koch in East Africa: Koch, Robert. Schlubetabericht über die Tätigkeit der deutschen Expedition zur Erforschung der Schlafkrankheit. In: Schwalbe, Julius, ed. Gesammelte Werke von Robert Koch. Leipzig: Verlag von Georg Thieme; 1912 (1907), p. 534-546 (542). [ Links ]

    25. Ehrlich, Paul. Chemotherapeutische Trypanosomenstudien. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. 1907; 44: 233-236; 280-283; 310-314; 341-344; 349-50. [ Links ]

    31. On the introduction of Salvarsan: Sauerteig, Lutz. Ethische Richtlinien, Patientenrechte und ärztliches Verhalten bei der Arzneimittelerprobung 1892-1931. Medizinhistorisches Journal. 2000; 35: 303-334. [ Links ]

    35. Ehrlich, Paul. Ülber Partialfunktionen der Zelle. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1909), p. 171-182; [ Links ]

    Ehrlich, Paul; Gonder, Richard. Experimentelle Chemotherapie. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1914), p. 559-582. [ Links ]

    36. Marks, Lewis H. Ülber einen arsenfesten Bakterienstamm. Zeitschrift für Immunitätsfoschung. 1910; 6: 293-298. [ Links ]

    37. Morgenroth, J.; Rosenthal, F. Experimentell-therapeutische Studien bei Trypanosomeninfektionen. III. Mitteilung. Arzneifestigkeit der Trypanosomen gegenüber Verbindungen der Hydrocupreinreihe. Zeitschrift für Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten. 1912; 71: 501-535. [ Links ]

    38. Ehrlich, Paul. Über die neuesten Ergebnisse auf dem Gebiet der Trypansosomenforschung. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1909), p. 195-212 (195). [ Links ]

    39. On Ehrlich's side chain theory: Prüll, Cay-Rüdiger. Part of a scientific master plan? - Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) and the origins of his receptor concept. Medical History. 2003; 47: 331-354, [ Links ]

    40. Ehrlich, Paul. Ülber Partialfunktionen der Zelle. In: Himmelweit, Fred, ed. The collected papers of Paul Ehrlich. London: Pergamon Press; 1960 (1909), p. 171-182 (178-179). [ Links ]

    41. Levaditi, Constantin; Twort, C. Su la trypanotoxine du bacillus subtilis. La toxo-résistance. Comptes rendus Soc. Biol. 1911; 70 (18): 799 did so in relation to bacterial toxins using Bacillus subtilis as an experimental model. [ Links ]

    42. Ehrlich, Paul. Ülber die neuesten Ergebnisse auf dem Gebiet der Trypansosomenforschung. In: Himmelweit, n. 35, 195-212 (209). [ Links ]

    52. Yorke, Warrington; Murgatroyd, Frederick; Hawking, Frank. Studies in chemotherapy: V. Preliminary contribution on the nature of drug resistance. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1931; 25: 351-358. [ Links ]

    This was followed by a whole series of papers in the following years, which were published in the Annals of Tropical Medicine down to 1938. Much of it was based on Frank Hawking's work, who in 1933 had delivered a thesis on induced drug resistance in trypanosome. Power, Helen J. Tropical medicine in the twentieth century: a history of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine 1898-1990. London and New York: Keagan Paul International; 1999: 90-93. [ Links ]

    53. Borman, Earle K. Comparative studies on the natural and acquired resistance of certain strains of Escherichia Coli to the bacteriostatic and germicidal effects of cations. Journal of Bacteriology. 1932; 23: 315-329. [ Links ]

    54. Lyndhurst Duke, Herbert. The trypanosomes of man: their resistance to arsenical drugs. The Lancet. 1933: 553-557, [ Links ]

    Lyndhurst Duke, Herbert. Arsenic resistance in trypanosmomes, Letter to the editor. The Lancet. 1935: 903-904. [ Links ]

    55. Quoted in Galdston, Iago. Some notes on the early history of chemotherapy. Bulletin for the History of Medicine. 1940; 8: 806-818 (817). [ Links ]