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Referencias del artículo

ROMERO DE PABLOS, Ana. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: Penicillin patents in Spain. Dynamis [online]. 2011, vol.31, n.2, pp.363-383. ISSN 0211-9536.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362011000200006.

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    23. Santesmases, 2010, n. 10. Images from NoDo which show Fleming's visit to Spain: 283 A Year VI, 284 B Year VI, 637 B Year XIII. Filmoteca Española. Archive, Madrid. On the history of the NoDo, see Tranche, Rafael; Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente. NO-DO. El tiempo y la memoria. Madrid: Cátedra/Filmoteca Española; 2002. [ Links ]

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    31. Santesmases, 1999, n. 10. The INI was the body that directed industrial policy in the Franco period. Martín Aceña, Pablo; Comín, Francisco. INI. 50 años de industrialización en España. Madrid: Espasa Calpe; 1991. [ Links ]

    33. On Banco Urquijo and its support for industry and research see Santesmases, n. 10, 1999. Also see Santesmases, María Jesús. Entre Cajal y Ochoa. Ciencias biomédicas en la España de Franco, 1939-1975. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; 2001, chapter 4, [ Links ]

    35. Schenley began four different procedures. It achieved its objective with one of them. Patent number 190142: A method for producing alkaline salts of penicillin. Applied for on 22/10/1949, although there is no record of it having been granted. Patent number 190143: A method for the production of penicillin sodium, applied for on 22/10/1949 and granted on 09/11/1949. Patent number 193056: A method for application of microbiological procedures. Applied for on 15/05/1950, but no record of it being granted exists. Patent number 194256: A device for aerating liquids. Applied for on 22/07/1949 but no record of it being granted exists. AHOEPM, Madrid. Concerns about how to introduce and sterilize the air used in fermentation is already present in the experimental stage in England. Some of the techniques incorporated were those used in alcohol factories. See Hobby, Gladys L. Penicillin. Meeting the challenge. New Haven and London: Yale University Press; 1985, p. 125-140. [ Links ]

    37. Decree of 17 June 1949, which decided the call for proposals published by Decree on 1 September 1948 to manufacture penicillin in Spain in favour of the proposal presented by "Consorcio Químico Español S.A. and Banco Urquijo S.A." and the proposal presented by "Industria española de antibióticos S.A.". Published in the Boletín Oficial del Estado, 11 August 1949. [ Links ]

    45. Bud, Robert. Penicillin. Triumph and tragedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007. [ Links ]