SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Referencias del artículo

SANTESMASES, María Jesús. Screening antibiotics: industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s. Dynamis [online]. 2011, vol.31, n.2, pp.407-427. ISSN 0211-9536.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362011000200008.

    1. Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael. Alimentación y enfermedad en tiempos de hambre: España, 1937-1947. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; 2007. [ Links ]

    Cazorla, Antonio. Las políticas de la victoria: la consolidación del Nuevo Estado franquista (1938-1953). Madrid: Marcial Pons; 2000. [ Links ]

    Catalán, Jordi. La economía española y la segunda guerra mundial. Barcelona: Ariel; 1995. [ Links ]

    Camprubí, Lino. One grain, one nation: rice genetics and the corporate state in early Francoist Spain (1939-1952). Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2010; 40: 499-531. [ Links ]

    2. Portero, Florentino. Franco aislado. La cuestión española (1945-1950). Madrid: Aguilar; 1989. [ Links ]

    Guirao, Fernando. Spain and the reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945-57. Londres: Mac-Millan; 1998. [ Links ]

    3. On penicillin production in Spain and the features of the dictatorship, see Santesmases, María Jesús. Delivering penicillin: the clinic, the hero and industrial production in Spain, 1943-1952. In: Quirke, Vivian; Slinn, Judy, eds. Perspectives on twentieth century pharmaceuticals. Oxford: Peter Lang; 2010, p. 91-117. [ Links ]

    On history of the pharmaceutical industry in Spain see also Puig, Nuria. Networks of innovation or networks of opportunity? The making of the Spanish antibiotics industry. Ambix. 2004; 51: 167-185. [ Links ]

    4. López García, Santiago. El saber tecnológico en la política industrial del primer franquismo (doctoral thesis). Universidad Complutense; 1994. [ Links ]

    López García, Santiago. La investigación científica y técnica antes y después de la guerra civil. In: Gómez Mendoza, Antonio, ed. Economía y sociedad en la España moderna y contemporánea. Madrid: Síntesis; 1996. [ Links ]

    5. Santesmases, María Jesús. Entre Cajal y Ochoa: ciencias biomédicas en la España contemporánea. Madrid: CSIC; 2001, chapter 4. [ Links ]

    6. I have explored elsewhere research activity in Spain as a combination of national policies and foreign collaboration and influence. See for example Santesmases, María Jesús. Severo Ochoa and the biomedical sciences in Spain under Franco, 1959-1975. Isis. 2000; 91: 706-734, [ Links ]

    and Santesmases, María Jesús. Orígenes internacionales de la política científica. In: Romero, Ana; Santesmases, María Jesús, eds. Cien años de política científica en España. Madrid: Fundación Banco Exterior; 2008, p. 293-327. [ Links ]

    7. On the linear model, from research to industrial production, see the contributions to Part I in Grandin, Karl, Nina Wormbs, Sven Widmalm, eds. The science-industry nexus. History, policy, implications. Sagamore Beach: Science History Publication; 2004. [ Links ]

    See also in Hulverscheidt, Marion A. The scientific entrepreneur or financing in pharmaceutical research. A portrait of the mariologist Werner Schulemann, 1888-1975. In: Quirke; Slinn, n. 3, 121-148. [ Links ]

    8. See the contributions to Löwy, Ilana; Gaudillière, Jean-Paul, eds. Invisible industrialist. Manufactures and the production of scientific knowledge. London: MacMillan Press; 1998. [ Links ]

    9. Kingston, William. Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 2004; 59: 441-462, [ Links ]

    where it is stressed the repetitive nature of Waksman's screening so as to reinforce Waksman's authority and thus wresting authority from collaborators of him like Albert Schatz, with whom priority conflicts arose regarding streptomycin. On this see also Wainwright, Milton. Streptomycin: discovery and resultant controversy. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. 1991; 13: 97-124. [ Links ]

    11. On technology transfer from abroad into Spain see Cebrián, Mar. Technological imitation and economic growth during the Golden Age in Spain: 1959-1973 (doctoral Thesis) Florence: European University Institute; 2004. [ Links ]

    Also López, Santiago; Cebrián, Mar. Economic growth, technology transfer, and convergence in Spain, 1960-1973. In: Ljunberg, Jonas; Smits, Jan-Pieter, eds. Technology and human capital in historical perspective. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan; 2004, p. 120-144. [ Links ]

    On the factory system of production from the point of view of the history of economics and industry see Chapman, Stanley D. The textile factory before Arkwright: a typology of factory development. Business History Review. 1974; 48: 451-478. [ Links ]

    Carlsson, Bo. The development and use of machine tools in historical perspective. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation. 1984; 5: 91-114. [ Links ]

    Mokyr, Joel. The rise and fall of the factory system: technology, firms and households since the industrial revolution. Carnegie-Rochester Conference series on Public Policy. 2001; 55: 1-45. [ Links ]

    Geraghty. The factory system in the British industrial revolution: A complementarity thesis. European Economic Review. 2007; 51: 1329-1350. [ Links ]

    12. Puig, Nuria. El crecimiento asistido de la industria química en España: Fabricación nacional de colorantes y explosivos, 1922-1965. Revista de Historia Industrial. 1999; 15: 105-136. [ Links ]

    And also Puig, Nuria; Loscertales, Javier. Las estrategias de crecimiento de la industria química alemana en España, 1880-1936: exportación e inversión directa. Revista de Historia Económica. 2001; 19: 345-382. [ Links ]

    13. Lesch, John. The first miracle drugs. How sulfa-drugs transformed medicine. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press; 2007. [ Links ]

    14. On culturing techniques of human tissues, see Landecker, Hanna. Culturing life: how cells became technologies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2007. [ Links ]

    16. See the screening of viral particles for the treatment of human cancer in the 1950s in Gaudil-lière, Jean-Paul. Circulating mice and viruses: The Jackson Memorial Laboratory, The Cancer Institute and the genetics of Breast Cancer, 1930-1965. In: Fortun, Michael; Mendelsohn, Everett, eds. The practices of human genetics. Dordrecht-Biston: Kluwer; 1999. [ Links ]

    On the screening of cervical cancer, see Löwy, Ilana. Preventive strikes. Women, precancer and prophylactic surgery. Boston: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2010. [ Links ]

    18. Bud, Robert. The uses of life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993. [ Links ]

    20. Lechevalier, Hubert. The search of antibiotics at Rutgers University. In: Parascandola, John, ed. The history of antibiotics. A symposium. Madison: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy; 1980, p. 113-123 [ Links ]

    21. Waksman, Selman. Streptomycin: background, isolation, properties, and utilization. Nobel Lecture, Dec 12, 1952, p. 370-388. At http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1952/waksman-lecture.pdf. [ Links ]

    22. Woodruff, H. Boyd. Selman Waksman. Historical background. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1960; 89: 287-298. [ Links ]

    23. Sakula, Alex. Selman Waksman 1888-1973, discoverer of streptomycin: a centenary review. British Journal of Disease of the Chest. 1988; 82: 23-31. [ Links ]

    24. Galambos Louis. Values & visions: A Merck century. Rahway: Merck and Co; 1991, p. 74. [ Links ]

    25. For a list of diseases responding to streptomycin see Waksman, n. 21, p. 383-384. The activity of streptomycin in the treatment of penicillin was widely celebrated at its time. See Comroe, Julius H. Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin part II. Feldman and Hinshaw; Lehmann. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1978; 117: 957-968. [ Links ]

    28. Woodruff, H. Boyd. Natural products from microorganism. Science. 1980; 208: 1225-1229. [ Links ]

    30. In 1952, forty-four antibiotics were listed by Spector, William, ed. Handbook of biological data. Philadelphia-London: W.S. Saunders Co.; 1952. [ Links ]

    31. Waksman, Selman. What is an antibiotic or antibiotic substance? Mycologia. 1947; 39: 565-569. [ Links ]

    On antibiotic as a brand, see Bud, Robert. From Germfobia to carefree life and back again. The lifecycle of the antibiotic brand. In: Tone, Andrea; Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel, eds. Medicating modern America: prescription drugs in history. New York: New York University Press; 2007, p. 17-41. [ Links ]

    33. Woodruff, H. Boyd; Hernández, Sebastián; Stapley Edward O. Evolution of an antibiotic screening programme. A tribute to Justo Martínez Mata. Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin. 1979; 21: 71-84. [ Links ]

    35. Strohl, W. R.; Woodruff, H. B.; Monaghan, R. L. et al. The history of natural products research at Merck & Co., Inc. SIM News. 2001; 51: 5-19. [ Links ]

    36. Swann, John P. Academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry: cooperative research in twentieth-century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1988. [ Links ]

    44. Mochales interview. See also Mochales, Sagrario. Ten years of CIBE symposia, 1989-1998. International Microbiology. 1998; 1: 251-254. [ Links ]

    49. Martínez Mata, J.; Hernández, S.; Mochales, S.; Maldonado, F.; Moreno, A.; Gallego, A. Un programa de investigación de nuevos antibióticos II. Aislamiento y caracterización de una xantomicina antibiótico 1561 (4). Anales del Instituto de Farmacología Española. 1958: 267-270. [ Links ]

    50. Waksman, Selman; Woodruff, W. Boyd. The soil as a source of microorganisms antagonistic to disease-producing bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology. 1940; 40: 581-600. [ Links ]

    51. Hernández, S.; Mochales, S.; Martínez Mata, J.; Gallego, A. Un programa de investigación de nuevos antibióticos. I. Resultados del año 1957. Anales del Instituto de Farmacología Española. 1958: 263-266. [ Links ]

    53. On PKU, see Paul, Diane. PKU and procreative liberty: historical and ethical considerations. Philosophy and Medicine. 2002; 65 (part II): 171-190. [ Links ]

    See also Paul, Diane; Edelson, Paul J. The struggle over metabolic screening. In: De Chadarevian, Soraya; Kamminga, Harmke, eds. Molecularizing biology and medicine. New practices and alliances. Amsterdam: Harwood; 1998, p. 203-220. [ Links ]

    56. Martínez Mata, Justo. La investigación de antibióticos en la industria farmacéutica española. Historia de un descubrimiento: la fosfomicina. Química e Industria. 1974; 20: 51-59. [ Links ]

    57. Woodruff; Hernández; Stapley, n. 33. On data base' construction and computers, see also García-Sancho, Miguel. From metaphor to practices: the introduction of information engineers into the first RNA sequence database. History and Philosophy of the Life Science. 2011 (in press). [ Links ]

    58. Woodruff, H. Boyd. A soil microbiologist's odyssey. Annual Review of Microbiology. 1981; 35: 1-28 (23). [ Links ]

    59. Peláez, Fernando. Introduction: 50 years of CIBE. In: CIBE: 50 años de investigación. Madrid: Merck Sharp and Dhome España; 2005, p. 23-33 (p. 24-25). [ Links ]

    See also Peláez, Fernando. The historical delivery of antibiotics from microbial natural products -can history repeat? Biochemical Pharmacology. 2006; 71: 981-990. [ Links ]

    60. For a wide discussion on screening in relation to standards and regulation see Gaudilliére, Jean-Paul. The singular fate of industrial screening in twentieth century pharmacy. Some thoughts about drug standardisation and drug regulation. In Bonah, Christian; Masutti, Christophe; Rasmussen, Anne; Simon, Jonathan, eds. Harmonizing drugs: standards in 20th-century pharmaceutical history. Paris: Glyphe; 2009, p. 153-180. [ Links ]

    61. Waksmann, Selman. The antibiotic era: a history of the antibiotics and of their role in the conquest of infectious diseases. 1975, published posthumously, quoted in Comroe J. H., Jr. Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. I: from Waksman to Waksman. Retrospectroscope. American Review of Respiratory Diseases. 1978; 117: 773-781. [ Links ]

    62. On collecting data on molecules for cataloguing, see De Chadarevian, Soraya. Following molecules: hemoglobin between the clinic and the laboratory. In: De Chadarevian, Soraya; Kamminga, Harmke, eds. Molecularizing biology and medicine. New practices and alliances. Amsterdam: Harwood; 1998, p. 171-201. [ Links ]

    On collecting data on molecules as a natural history practice, see Strasser, Bruno. Collecting and experimenting: the moral economies of biological research, 1960-1980s. In: History and epistemology of molecular biology and beyond: problems and perspectives. Berlin: Max Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte; 2006. Preprint 310, p. 105-125. [ Links ]