SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

ORTIZ LEYBA, C.; MONTEJO GONZALEZ, J. C.  and  VAQUERIZO ALONSO, C.. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Septic patient. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2011, vol.26, suppl.2, pp.67-71. ISSN 0212-1611.

    1. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, Bion J, Parker MM, Jaeschke R et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 296-327. [ Links ]

    2. García de Lorenzo A, Ortiz Leyba C, Planas M, Montejo JC, Núñez R, Ordóñez FJ et al. Parenteral administration of different amounts of branch-chain amino acids in septic patients: clinical and metabolic aspects. Crit Care Med 1997; 25: 418- 24. [ Links ]

    3. Galbán C, Montejo JC, Mesejo A, Marco P, Celaya S, Sánchez-Segura JM et al. An immune-enhancing enteral diet reduces mortality rate and episodes of bacteremia in septic intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 643-8. [ Links ]

    4. Pontes-Arruda A, Aragao AM, Albuquerque JD. Effects of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 2325-33. [ Links ]

    5. Schunn CD, Daly JM. Small bowel necrosis associated with postoperative jejunal tube feeding. J Am Coll Surg 1995; 180: 410-6. [ Links ]

    6. Frey C, Takala J, Krahenbuhl L. Non-occlusive small bowel necrosis during gastric tube feeding: A case report. Intensive Care Med 2001; 27: 1422-5. [ Links ]

    7. McClave SA, Chang WK. Feeding the hypotensive patient: does enteral feeding precipitate or protect against ischemic bowel? Nutr Clin Pract 2003; 18: 279-84. [ Links ]

    8. Elke G, Schädler D, Engel C, Bogatsch H, Frerichs I, Ragaller M et al; German Competence Network Sepsis (SepNet). Current practice in nutritional support and its association with mortality in septic patients. Results from a national, prospective, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 1762-7. [ Links ]

    9. Ortiz-Leyba C, Garnacho-Montero J, Domínguez AC. Sepsis, mortality, and parenteral nutrition: the risk of dualism on nutritional support. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 1179; author reply, 1179-80. [ Links ]

    10. Bertolini G, Lapichino G, Radrizzani D, Facchini R, Simini B, Bruzzone P et al. Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis: results of an interim analysis of a randomized multicentre clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29: 834-40. [ Links ]

    11. Kieft H, Roos AN, Van Drunen JD, Bindels AJ, Bindels JG, Hofman Z. Clinical outcome of immunonutrition in a heterogeneous intensive care population. Intensive Care Med 2005; 31: 524-32. [ Links ]

    12. Heyland DK, Novak F, Drover JW, Jain M, Su X, Suchner Ul. Should immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients: a systematic review of the evidence. JAMA 2001; 286: 944-53. [ Links ]

    13. Montejo JC, Zarazaga A, López-Martínez J, Urrutia G, Roqué M, Blesa AL et al; Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units. Immunonutrition in the intensive care unit. A systematic review and consensus statement. Clin Nutr 2003; 22: 221-33. [ Links ]

    14. Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Immunonutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 1980-90. [ Links ]

    15. Grau Carmona T, Morán García V, García de Lorenzo A, Heras de la Calle G, Quesada Bellver B, López Martínez J et al. Effect of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, gammalinolenic acid and anti-oxidants on the outcome of mechanically ventilated, critically ill, septic patients. Clin Nutr 2011. Epub 2011 Apr 5. [ Links ]

    16. Luiking YC, Poeze M, Hendrikx M, Breedveld P, Dejong CHC, De Feiter PW et al. Continuous l-arginine infusion does not deteriorate the hemodynamic condition in patients with severe sepsis (abstract). Clin Nutr 2005; 24: 612-3. [ Links ]

    17. Luiking YC, Poeze M, Preiser J, L-arginine infusion in severely septic patients does not enhance protein nitrosylation or haemodynamic instability. e-ESPEN 2006; 1: 14-5. [ Links ]

    18. Lorente JA, Landín L, De Pablo R, Renes E, Liste D. L-arginine pathway in the sepsis syndrome. Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1287-95. [ Links ]

    19. Villalpando S, Gopal J, Balasubramanyam A, Bandi VP, Guntupalli K, Jahoor F. In vivo arginine production and intravascular nitric oxide synthesis in hypotensive sepsis. Am J Clin Nutr2006; 84: 197-203. [ Links ]

    20. Luiking YC, Poeze M, Ramsay G, Deutz N EP. Reduced citrulline production in sepsis is related to diminished de novo arginine and nitric oxide production. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 142-52. [ Links ]

    21. Dechelotte P, Hasselmann M, Cynober L, Allaouchiche B, Coëffier M, Hecketsweiler B et al. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: the French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2006; 24: 598-604. [ Links ]

    22. Grau T, Bonet A, Miñambres E, Piñeiro L, Irles JA, Robles A et al; the Metabolism, Nutrition Working Group, SEMICYUC, Spain. The effect of l-alanyl-l-glutamine dipeptide supplemented total parenteral nutrition on infectious morbidity and insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2011; 39: 1263-8. [ Links ]

    23. Ziegler TR, Ogden LG, Singleton KD, Luo M, Fernández-Estívariz C, Griffith DP et al. Parenteral glutamine increases serum heat shock protein 70 in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2005; 31: 1079-86. [ Links ]

    24. Beale RJ, Sherry T, Lei K, Campbell-Stephen L, McCook J,Smith J et al. Early enteral supplementation with key pharmaconutrients improves Sequential organ Failure Assessment score in critically ill patients with sepsis: outcome of a randomi zed, controlled, double-blind trial. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 131-44. [ Links ]

    25. Heller AR, Rossler S, Litz RJ, Stehr SN, Heller SC, Koch R et al. Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 972-9. [ Links ]

    26. Friesecke S, Lotze C, Kohler J, Heinrich A, Felix SB, Abel P. Fish oil supplementation in the parenteral nutrition of critically ill medical patients: a randomised controlled trial. IntensiveCare Med 2008; 34: 1411-20. [ Links ]

    27. Barbosa VM, Miles EA, Calhau C, Lafuente E, Calder PC. Effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion on plasma phospholipid fatty acids, inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Critical Care 2010; 14: R5. [ Links ]

    28. Berger MM, Chioléro RL. Antioxidant supplementation in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Crit Care Med 2007; 35 (Suppl. 9): S584-90. [ Links ]

    29. Angstwurm MW, Engelmann L, Zimmermann T, Lehmann C, Spes CH, Abel P et al. Selenium in Intensive Care (SIC): Results of a prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-center study in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock. Crit Care Med2007; 35: 118-26. [ Links ]

    30. Forceville X, Laviolle B, Annane D, Vitoux D, Bleichner G, Korach JM et al. Effects of high doses of selenium, as sodium selenite, in septic shock: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, phase II study. Crit Care 2007; 11: R73. [ Links ]

    31. Trial of Glutamine and Antioxidant Supplementation in Critically Ill patients (REDoXS) [consultado 13-2-2011]. Disponible en: REDoX&rank=17 [ Links ]