SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Referencias del artículo

CIMAS HERNANDO, J. E.. Importancia de los síntomas en la EPOC. Medifam [online]. 2003, vol.13, n.3, pp.46-55. ISSN 1131-5768.

    1. Sala J, Suárez S, Mosquera JA. Definición. En: Mosquera JA, editor. Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. Actualización integrada. Madrid: Ediciones Ergon SA, 1997.  [ Links ]


    2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Worl Health Organixation. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO workshop report. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Publication Nº. 2701A; 2001. Disponible en URL: www.goldcopd.com.  [ Links ]


    3. Fletcher C, Peto R. The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction. BMJ 1977; 1: 1645-8.  [ Links ]


    4. Lorza JJ, Bustamante V, Tirapu JM, Crespo JA. Disnea. En: SEPAR. Manual de neumología y cirugía torácica (Vol 1). Madrid: Editores Médicos SA, 1998. p. 467-84.  [ Links ]


    5. Burdon JGW, Juniper EF, Killiar KJ, Hargreave FE, Campbell EJM. The perception of breathlessness in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126: 825-8.  [ Links ]


    6. Sweer L, Zwillich CW. Dyspnea in the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Etiology and management. Clin Chest Med 1990; 11: 417-5.  [ Links ]


    7. McGavin CR, Artvinli M, Naoe H, McHardy GJR. Dyspnea, disability, and distance walked: comparison of estimates of exercise perfomance in repiratory disease. BMJ 1987; 2: 241-3.  [ Links ]


    8. Mahler DA, Weinberg DM, Wells CK, Feinstein AR. The measurement of dyspnea. Contents, interobserver agreement and physiologic correlates of two new clinical indexes. Chest 1984; 85: 751-8.  [ Links ]


    9. Stoller JK, Ferranti R, Feinstein AR. Further specification and evaluation of a new clinical index for dyspnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 134: 1129-34.  [ Links ]


    10. Elías MT, Ortega F, Sánchez H, Otero R, Sánchez R, Montemayor T. Papel de la disnea en la calidad de vida del paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Arch Bronconeumol 1999; 35: 261-6.  [ Links ]


    11. Anthonisen NR, Manfreda J, Warren CPW, Hershfield ES, Harding GKM, Nelson NA. Antibiotic therapy in exacerbations of chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 196-204.  [ Links ]


    12. Crockett AJ, Cranston JM, Moss JR, Alpers JH. Domiciliary oxygen for COPD (Cochrane Review). En: The Cochrane Library, 4. Oxford: Update Software, 2000.  [ Links ]


    13. Lacasse Y, Wong E, Guyatt GH, King D, Cook DJ, Goldstein RS. Meta-analysis of respiratory rehabilitation in chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Lancet 1996; 348: 1115-9.  [ Links ]


    14. Valthenen AS, Britton JR, Ebden P, Cookson JB, Wharrad HJ, Tattersfield AE. High-dose inhalec albuterol in severe chronic air'low limitation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988, 138: 850-5.  [ Links ]


    15. Gross NJ, Petty TL, Friedman M, Skorodin MS, Silvers GW, Donohue JF. Dose response to ipratropium as a nebulized solution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A three-center study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139: 1188-91.  [ Links ]


    16. Chrystyn H, Mulley BA, Peake MD. Dose response relation to oral teophyllinein severe chronic obstructive airways disease. BMJ 1988; 297: 1506-10.  [ Links ]


    17. Higgins BG, Powell RM, Cooper S, Tattersfield AE. Effect of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide on airway calibre and bronchial reactivity in asthma and chronic bronchitis. Eur Respir J 1991; 4: 415-20.  [ Links ]


    18. Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Kiley JP Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilatador on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study. JAMA 1994; 272: 1497-505.  [ Links ]


    19. Liesker JJW, Wijkstra PJ, Ten Hacken NHT, Koëter GH, Postma DS, Kerstjens HAM. A systematic review of the effects of bronchodilators on exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Chest 2002; 121: 597-608.  [ Links ]


    20. Sobradillo V, Vara F, Pac J, Camino J, Pascal I, Rojo R. Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. En: SEPAR. Manual de neumología y cirugía torácica (vol 2). Madrid: Editores medicos, 1998. p. 1125-53.  [ Links ]


    21. Pauwels RA, Lofdahl CG, Laitinen LA, Schouten JP, Postma DS, Pride NB, et al. Long-term treatment with inhaled budesonide in persons with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who continue smoking. European Respiratory Society Study on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 1948-53.  [ Links ]


    22. Burge PS, Calverley PM, Jones PW, Spencer S, Anderson JA, Maslen TK. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ISOLDE trial. BMJ 2000; 320: 1297-303.  [ Links ]


    23. Poole PJ, Black PN. Mucolytic agents for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. En: The Cochrane Library, issue 4. Oxford: Update Software, 2002.  [ Links ]


    24. Compton CH, Gubb J, Nieman R, Edelson J, Amit O, Bakst A, et al. Cilomilast, a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor for treatment of patientes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised, dose-ranging study. Lancet 2001; 358: 265-70.  [ Links ]


    25. Maesen FPV, Smeets JJ, Sledsens RJH, Wald FDM, Comellisen PJG. Tiotropium bromide, a new long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilatador: a pharmacodinamic study in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eur Respir J 1995; 8: 1506-13.  [ Links ]


    26. Littner MR, Ilowite JS, Tashkin DP, Friedman M, Serby CW, Menjoge SS, et al. Long-acting bronchodilatation with once-daily dosing of tiotropium (Spiriva) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: 1136-42.  [ Links ]


    27. Casaburi R, Briggs DD, Donohue JF, Serby CW, Menjoge SS, Witek TJ. The spirometric efficacy of once-daily dosing with tiotropium in stable COPD. Chest 2000; 118: 1294-302.  [ Links ]


    28. Van Noord JA, BantjeTA, Eland ME, Korducki L, Comelissen PJG. A randomised controlled comparison of tiotropium and ipmtropium in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2000; 55: 289-94.  [ Links ]


    29. Casaburi R, Mahler DA, Jones PW, Wanner A, San Pedro G, ZuWallack RL, et al. A long-term evaluation of once-daily inhaled tiotroppum in chronic obstructive pulmonay disease. Eur Respir J 2002; 19: 217-24. [ Links ]


    30. Wincken W, van Noord JA, Greefhorst APM, Bentje ThA, Kesten S, Korducki L, et al. Improved health outcomes in patients with COPD during 1 year’s treatment with tiotropium. Eur Respir J 2002, 19: 209-16. [ Links ]