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Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)

versión impresa ISSN 0004-0614


OROZCO FARINAS, Rodolfo et al. Renal hematoma after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in a series of 324 consecutive sessions with the DOLI-S lithotripter: incidents, characteristics, multifactorial analysis and review. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2008, vol.61, n.8, pp.889-914. ISSN 0004-0614.

Objectives: The objective is to know the prevalence of renal hematoma after lithotripsy in our unit, as well as the incidence of symptomatic and/or progressive hematomas, their clinical behavior and management, and also the factors potentially influencing those features. Methods: A prospective study in wich we analyzed various parameters from the database on 314 patients undergoing SWL on 324 renal units. SPSS 15.0l was employed for statistical analysis under supervision of biostatistics experts. The diagnosis of hematoma was obtained with clinical data (history and physical examination), blood analysis, and ultrasound, this latter with the complement of CT scan in isolated cases. All patients underwent follow-up by means of phone contacts over a period between 7-19 months after lithotripsy. Results: The prevalence of hematoma was 13% but only 6.2% were symptomatic. Accumulated incidence of hematoma with progressive evolution was 2.16%, and blood transfusion requirement due to hematoma was 0.92% of all lithotripsies, which represents 7.14% or them. Factors statistically associated with the incidence of hematoma were: number of shock waves (over 2300j, total energy (above 150J), number of KV (above 17.5), preoperative microhematuria, perioperative hypertension, cystine lithiasis, hydrocalyx, caliceal localizations (mainly lower calyces), the association of coronary artery disease with hypertension, or hepatic diseases, chronic hepatopathy, elevation of transaminases, usual intake of anti platelet aggregation drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (mainly with prior low weight heparin treatment for hematoma progression), and a combination of the previous with preoperative hypertension (for symptomatic hematoma), as well as the presence of multiple stones treated in the same session, with different degrees of association for the various subgroups of hematomas. We observed differences in clinical behavior depending on the type of hematoma (subcapsular and perirenal) and 12% of the patients with hematoma remained symptomatic between 2 and six months later. Conclusions: Renal hematoma after shock wave lithotripsy is more frequent than what is believed. Hematoma's size and evolution depend on multiple factors some of them with a greater weight (hepatopathy, perioperative blood pressure behavior, usual intake of anti-aggregation drugs with need of perioperative low weight heparin) which a greater risk when three or more factors concurred. Subcapsular and perirenal hematomas have a different clinical behavior. Initial ultrasound hematoma diameters equal ≥ 4 cm were more prone to progression. The risk of symptomatic clinical presentation or progression was evident within the first five days after shockwave lithotripsy even when asymptomatic or clinically/radiologically stable over the first 24 hours, therefore, careful follow-up and physical resting is counselled over the first week in patients with high risk, and relative physical resting during at least five days in all patients undergoing treatment. Lumbar pain may persist up to six months in some patients with renal clinically significant hematoma after shockwave lithotripsy.

Palabras clave : Renal hematoma; Shockwave lithotripsy; Perirenal hematoma; Subcapsular renal hematoma.

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