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Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)

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JUAN ESCUDERO, Joaquín Ulises et al. Our experience in treatment of renal tumours with venous involvement. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2009, vol.62, n.1, pp.9-16. ISSN 0004-0614.

Objectives: Renal carcinoma accounts for 3% of malignant urological tumors. The existence of tumor thrombus in the venous system is more infrequent, and, despite it was believed until recently its presence worsened the diagnosis of the disease, currently it is accepted that in the absence of metastatic or lymph node disease, surgery is the treatment of choice and potentially curative for these tumors. Methods: Between June 2003 and November 2007 eight patients with renal disease and venous thrombus underwent surgery; two of them wereT3c and six T3b; in five of them surgery was carried out in association with the heart surgery team in our centre. Three of them underwent surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Mean patient age was 56 years. Results: Tumor thrombus was grade I in one patient, grade II in 4 patients, grade III in one patient, and grade IV in two patients. In all patients with tumor grade > III, as well as two with grade II, surgery was performed in conjunction with the department of heart surgery. The operation with extracorporeal circulation, deep hypothermia, cardioplegia, and antegrade and retrograde brain perfusion was performed in grades III and IV. Midline incision was performed, with or without sternotomy, depending on the level of the thrombus. Hemorrhage was the most frequent perioperative complication. Discussion: It is essential to know the exact level of the cephalic extreme of the tumor thrombus to design the proper surgical strategy; for that, we can use MRI, CT scan or ultrasound. Therefore, surgical approach, multidisciplinary cooperation and use of extracorporeal circulation will depend on such extension of the thrombus and concurrent factors of the patient. A good surgical strategy, as well as early surgery may avoid the use of venous filters preoperatively. Conclusions: Venous wall invasion seems to be related with a greater incidence of lymph node disease, but these patients are candidates to intention-to-cure radical surgery. Thrombus level is not a prognostic factor per se, but it should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. After radical surgery survival rates achieved are similar to those of tumors without venous thrombus.

Keywords : Renal tumour; Venous involvement; Surgical treatment.

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