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Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)

Print version ISSN 0004-0614


HERMIDA PEREZ, José A. et al. Renal colic at emergency departments: Epidemiologic, diagnostic andetiopathogenic study. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2010, vol.63, n.3, pp.173-187. ISSN 0004-0614.

Objectives: To investigate epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical factors associated with emergency renal colic (RC). Methods ands results: We performed a prospective cross-sectional multicenter case-control study of 146 patients treated for RC at emergency departments. Data collected included age, sex, localization/severity of pain, symptoms, personal/family medical history, urine analysis, etiopathogenic factors, chemical composition of the lithiasis, and x-ray studies. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.2 software. RC was more frequent in men; maximum incidence was between 31-50 years for both sex, with 36.3% in men and 21.23% in women; 60.27% of patients rated pain as severe; 140 RC patients (95.89%) had urologic antecedents vs. 15 (10.27%) controls without RC (p<0.001). The most frequent presentation (93.83%) was sudden intense lumbar-abdominal or lumbar pain; 23.28% of RC patients had family history for urinary lithiasis vs. 6.16% controls (p<0,001). Most RC patients were seen during summer (36.58%), 82% of RC patients drank <2L of water daily vs. 18.49% in non-RC patients (p<0.001). Hematuria was found in 132 (90.41%) patients with RC vs. 17 (11.64%) in those without (p<0.001). Lithiasis was observed by KUB x-ray in 42.10% of RC patients vs. 57.89% controls, most frequent calculi composition was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dehydrate (61,2%). Conclusions: The incidence of urinary lithiasis and RC in our health care area shows a male predominance. The characteristic pain of RC is severe and appears suddenly. It starts in the back (lumbar region), below the ribs, radiating towards the groin and external genitals (testicles in man or major lips in woman) on the same side. Nausea and vomiting are frequent. Family history of urinary lithiasis and low water intake are risk factors that need to be investigated. Occupations associated with a sedentary life style or with a hot, dry workplace show a higher incidence of lithiasis. A hot, dry climate favours the formation of urinary lithiasis and the highest incidence of lithiasis is in the summer, during the months of July and August. The most frequent component of urolithiasis in our study, as well as in other studies, was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate.

Keywords : Renal colic; Epidemiology; Etiopathogenesis; Diagnosis.

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