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Actas Urológicas Españolas

Print version ISSN 0210-4806


PONTONES MORENO, J.L.; MORERA MARTINEZ, J.F.; VERA DONOSO, C.D.  and  JIMENEZ CRUZ, J.F.. Cryosurgery in the management of prostate cancer. Actas Urol Esp [online]. 2007, vol.31, n.3, pp.211-232. ISSN 0210-4806.

This article reviews the current status of the prostatic cryosurgery in the management of patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in cryoablative technology have allowed to treat these patients successfully with decreased morbidity. Using transrectal high-resolution ultrasound imaging, prostate cryotherapy is delivered with multiple ultrathin (17-gauge) cryo-needles, via percutaneous transperineal approach. The extent of freezing can be precisely controlled and monitored with thermic devices, tissue destruction is monitored with real-time visualization of the prostate and surrounding structures, and urethral warming is used to avoid urethral sloughing. However, the results with the second and third-generation cryosurgical equipment will have to be confirmed by means of prospective and randomized trials, because up to now we only have data based on retrospective analyses, which are very heterogeneous. The ability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to predict long-term outcome after cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is not well known because experience with this treatment modality is still limited; however, it seems that a PSA value of 0.5 ng/ml or less after 6 months or longer after cryotherapy would be associated with a high probability (greater than 95%) of negative post-treatment biopsy. Cryosurgery could also be an option of treatment for men with recurrent local disease who have undergone radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. We have to keep in mind possible complications (incontinence, impotency, urethrorectal fistula or bladder outlet obstruction. The favorable side effect profile and preliminary oncologic and funtional results could suggest that cryosurgery will have a role in the minimally invasive management of selected patients with prostate cancer.

Keywords : Cryosurgery; Prostate cancer.

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