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Medicina Intensiva

versão impressa ISSN 0210-5691


MADERO PEREZ, J. et al. Percutaneous tracheostomy in ventilated patients. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2007, vol.31, n.3, pp.120-125. ISSN 0210-5691.

Introduction. Percutaneous tracheostomy is an alternative to conventional surgical tracheostomy. It is associated to a more feasible procedure, that is less invasive and linked to a lower degree of complications. Herein, we review our experience since the implementation of this technique in our Department. Design. Retrospective observational. Setting. Nineteen-bed intensive care department, in a general reference teaching hospital. Patients and method. A total of 115 of 130 tracheostomies performed from 2001 to 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. Collected data include epidemiological information, reason for performing the procedure, maintenance time of artificial airway before the tracheostomy and type of ventilatory support or oxygen supplementation before and after the procedure. The modified PEEP (PEEP-mod = FiO2 x PEEP) was calculated, sedation level received before and 4-6 hours after the technique and also 24 hours later, were reviewed. Subsequent patient evolution was collected. Interventions. Observational study on the results of routine procedures. Variables of interest. Blood gases indicators of effectiveness in oxygen supply and the need of mechanical ventilation support. Results. Median age of the 115 reviewed patients was 65 years. The most common admission reasons were: brain vascular accident in 25 cases, head and neck injury in 21, cancer in 11 and sepsis in 10 patients. Tracheostomy was indicated because prolonged mechanical ventilation in 52 patients, coma in 28 and emergency or scheduled surgery in 10 cases. Median length of stay in the ICU before tracheostomy was 14 days. Ninety-two patients were discharged from the ICU, and 52 from the Hospital. The remaining patients died during their hospital stay. Serious complications appeared in 5 patients (4%); 3 of them were the development of fistulae and all of them occurred in patients in whom the tracheostomy was performed in the ICU at bedside. Before the procedure, 72 patients were under mechanical ventilation, but only 56 received ventilatory support 24 hours after tracheostomy. When PEEP-mod values were analyzed, first monitoring of median value was 1.6 (range 0 to 2), 4-6 hours time median value was 2 (1.4-2.45), and 24 hours later median value was 1.2 (0-2) (global variation, p < 0.001). Conclusions. In our experience, percutaneous tracheostomy performed at bedside in the ICU is an adequate solution with a low complication rate and its makes it possible to reduce the level of ventilatory support.

Palavras-chave : tracheostomy; percutaneous technique; ventilatory support.

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