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Medicina Intensiva

versión impresa ISSN 0210-5691


ANON, J.M. et al. Transfusion-related acute lung injury. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2010, vol.34, n.2, pp.139-149. ISSN 0210-5691.

The term Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) was coined in 1985. It is a relatively rare, life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by acute respiratory failure and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema during or following a blood transfusion. Although its true incidence is unknown, a rate 1 out of every 5000 transfusions has been quoted. TRALI has been the most common cause of transfusion-related fatalities during three years in the USA. Two different etiologies have been proposed. The first is a single antibody-mediated event involving the transfusion of anti-HLA or antigranulocyte antibodies into patients whose leukocytes express the cognate antigens. The second is a two-event model: the first event is related to the clinical condition of the patient (sepsis, trauma, etc.) resulting in pulmonary endothelial activation and neutrophil sequestration, and the second event is the transfusion of a biologic response modifier that activates these adherent polymorphonuclear leukocytes resulting in endothelial damage and capillary leak. The patient management is support as needed based on the severity of the clinical picture and strategies to prevent TRALI are focused on: donor-exclusion policies, product management strategies and avoidance of unnecessary transfusions.

Palabras clave : Acute lung injury; Transfusion; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Transfusion related acute lung injury.

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