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Medicina Intensiva

Print version ISSN 0210-5691


ESCUDERO, D. et al. Endovascular treatment and intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2010, vol.34, n.6, pp.370-378. ISSN 0210-5691.

Objective: Analysis of the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy and endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke. Design and area: An observational prospective study in the Intensive Care Unit. Patients and methods: 16 patients had endovascular treatment. Epidemiological data, arterial occlusion site, time between stroke onset and treatment, treatment indication, NIHSS scale at admission and discharge from hospital, complications and functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale (obtained by telephone survey) were collected. Results: Ten male patients with a mean age of 59 years (29-74) were included. The mean stay in the ICU was 6 days (1-33). Seven patients required mechanical ventilation. Treatment indications were: intravenous thrombolysis failure in 4 patients, major vessel occlusion in 5, outside of the therapeutic window in 2, posterior circulation occlusion in 3, outside of the therapeutic window plus major vessel occlusion in 1 and intravenous thrombolysis contraindication in 1. The occlusion site was on posterior circulation in 3 and on carotid territories and branches in 13. Thrombolytic treatment used was Urokinase at a dose of 100,000-600,000IU. Four patients required mechanical embolectomy and 10 stent implantation. Complete recanalization was observed in 11 (69%) and partial in 4 (25%). Three evolved to brain death. Six patients (46%) had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score <2). Technical complication was 1 femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. Conclusions: With the intra-arterial treatment, high rates of recanalization and favorable outcome are obtained with few complications. It could be indicated in patients with severe neurological injury (NIHSS >10), evolution time between 3-6h, intravenous thrombolysis contraindication and proximal arterial occlusion.

Keywords : Ischemic stroke; Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy; Endovascular treatment; Mechanical embolectomy; Acute angioplasty.

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