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Medicina Intensiva

versão impressa ISSN 0210-5691


BORGATTA, B.; KMET-LUNACEK, N.  e  RELLO, J.. E. coli O104:H4 outbreak and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.8, pp.576-583. ISSN 0210-5691.

Background: The first cases of the European epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 (STEC-O104:H4) infection were reported in Germany in April 2011. Objectives: To characterize the 2011 STEC-O104:H4 outbreak and its management. A literature review is made to assess the state of the art in STEC-haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and prognosis, focusing on critically ill adults. Methods: References were obtained from the European Center for Disease Control and World Health Organization epidemiological updates, in addition to a PubMed search covering the period from 1980 to August 2011, including all published work on STEC-014:H4 and reviews on HUS management and prognosis. Results: The epidemic originated from a bean and seed sprouts farm in Lower Saxony, and was caused by the O104:H4 strain - a highly antibiotic resistant, hybrid enteroaggregative - Shiga toxin producing E. coli strain (STEC). The infection was characterized by increased HUS (25%) and a higher mortality rate. STEC enteritis and HUS are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, especially amongst patients with severe renal and neurological disorders. Management should center on prompt kidney protection by maintaining adequate renal perfusion, in addition to avoiding diuretics and nephrotoxic agents. Conclusions: The published studies regarding antibiotic treatment lack good quality evidence. However, recent data suggest a potential modulating effect that explains the conflicting data but moreover suggests that azithromycin might be of use. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are a promising new therapy for STEC-HUS, with currently ongoing studies. Other treatments have not been shown to be superior to supportive therapy alone.

Palavras-chave : E. coli O104:H4; STEC-O104; Review; Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

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