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Nefrología (Madrid)

On-line version ISSN 1989-2284Print version ISSN 0211-6995


MARTINEZ-GALLARDO, Rocío et al. Congestive heart failure in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: association with pre-emptive vascular access placement. Nefrología (Madr.) [online]. 2012, vol.32, n.2, pp.206-212. ISSN 1989-2284.

Introduction: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to classical risk factors (e.g. age and pre-existing cardiac diseases), other potential reversible abnormalities linked to CKD such as anaemia, volume overload, or vascular access placement may also influence the incidence and severity of acute exacerbations of CHF. Objective: This study aims to determine the incidence and main determinants of CHF in a cohort of patients with stage 4-5 pre-dialysis CKD. Patients and Method: The study group consisted of 562 patients (mean age: 65±15 years, 260 females, 31% diabetics). Native arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) were created in 160 patients who chose haemodialysis as the initial technique for renal replacement therapy. The main outcome variables were: acute decompensated CHF (defined by standard criteria), dialysis initiation (planned and unplanned), and death before dialysis initiation. In addition to demographics, comorbidities, and clinical and biochemical data, AVF creation was also included as a potential determinant of CHF in multiple logistic regression models. Results: Ninety-five patients (17%) developed at least one episode of acute decompensated CHF, and the incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 patient-years. In addition to classical risk factors (age, female sex, obesity, diabetes, and previous history of CHF or coronary artery disease), creation of a successful AVF significantly increased the risk of CHF (OR=9.54, 95% CI: 4.84-18.81, P<.0001). In 47 out of 95 patients who developed CHF, a functioning AVF had previously been created, 92% of which were upper arm native AVF, with a median of 51 days between the surgical procedure and CHF episode. The mortality of patients with CHF was similar to that of the rest of the study patients, although unplanned dialysis initiation was significantly more frequent in those who developed CHF. Conclusions: Acute decompensated CHF episodes are common in pre-dialysis CKD patients. In addition to classical risk factors, pre-emptive AVF placement was strongly associated with the development of CHF.

Keywords : Vascular access; Chronic kidney disease; Congestive heart failure; Pre-dialysis.

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