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Nefrología (Madrid)

On-line version ISSN 1989-2284Print version ISSN 0211-6995


GARCIA CAMIN, Rosa Maria et al. Acute kidney failure secondary to a combination of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, diuretics and NSAIDS: the "Triple Whammy". Nefrología (Madr.) [online]. 2015, vol.35, n.2, pp.197-206. ISSN 1989-2284.

Introduction: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (ACEIs/ARBs), diuretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - a combination also known as the Triple Whammy (TW) - can reduce the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). Objective: To study the incidence of AKI due to any type or combination of drugs. To describe patient profiles admitted for outpatient AKI due to TW drugs (AKI-TW), hospital costs and mortality. Methods: This was a 15-month retrospective observational study, developed in 3 stages: - First stage: Cross-sectional description of outpatient AKI-TW hospitalisation episodes. - Second stage: Outpatient drug consumer cohort follow-up (15,307 individuals). - Third stage: Mortality and costs evaluation. It included 62 patients with AKI-TW and 62 without, paired by medical specialty, gender, age and comorbidity according to the Clinical Risk Groups (CRG) system. Results: There were 85 hospitalisation episodes attributed to AKI-TW; 78% of cases were older than 70 years. Incidence of AKI-TW was 3.40 cases/1000 users/year (95% CI: 2.59-4.45). Double therapy with NSAIDs + diuretics was 8.99 (95%CI 3.16-25.3); Triple Whammy was 8.82 (95% CI 4.4-17.3); double therapy with ACEIs/ARBs + diuretics 6.87 (95% CI 4.81-9.82); and diuretics in monotherapy 3.31(95% CI 1.39-7.85). Mean stay for cases was 7.6 days (SD 6.4) and total avoidable costs were €214,604/100,000 inhabitants/year. Mortality during hospital stay and at 12 months was 11.3% and 40.3% respectively, without significant differences between groups. Conclusions: Triple Whammy therapy is associated with a high incidence of hospital admission for AKI. Diuretics in monotherapy, double and combined triple therapy are associated with a high incidence of AKI. AKI-TW involves high hospital costs and avoidable mortality.

Keywords : Acute kidney injury; Anti-inflammatory agents; Antihypertensive agents; Diuretics; Drug interactions.

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