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Nefrología (Madrid)

On-line version ISSN 1989-2284Print version ISSN 0211-6995


VERDALLES, Úrsula et al. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Nefrología (Madr.) [online]. 2016, vol.36, n.5, pp.523-529. ISSN 1989-2284.

Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD.


To estimate the prevalence of RH in patients with different degrees of kidney disease and analyse the characteristics of this group of patients.


A total of 618 patients with hypertension and CKD stages I-IV were enrolled, of which 82 (13.3%) met the criteria for RH.


RH prevalence increased significantly with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. The prevalence of RH was 3.2% in patients under 50 years, 13.8% between 50-79 years and peaked at 17.8% in patients older than 80 years. Renal function prevalence was 4, 15.8 and 18.1% in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of > 60, 30-59 and < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, and 8.9, 15.9 and 22.5% for a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) < 30, 30-299 and > 300 mg/g respectively. In a logistic regression model, the characteristics associated with resistant hypertension were age, history of cardiovascular disease, GFR, albuminuria and diabetes mellitus. A total of 47.5% of patients with resistant hypertension had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg) with 4 or more antihypertensive drugs. These patients were younger, with better renal function, less albuminuria and received more aldosterone antagonists.


RH prevalence increases with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. Strategies such as treatment with aldosterone receptor antagonists are associated with better blood pressure control in this group of patients, leading to reduced prevalence.

Keywords : Resistant hypertension; Prevalence; Chronic kidney disease; Diuretics; Spironolactone.

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