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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611


ORZAEZ VILLANUEVA, M.ª T.; RODRIGUEZ CISNEROS, A.; MORALES RUIZ, E.  and  MARTINEZ RINCON, C.. Determination of factors conditioning adherence and accomplishment of renal protection diet in patients with chronic renal failure: pilot study for the elaboration of a dietary guideline. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2006, vol.21, n.2, pp.145-154. ISSN 1699-5198.

There are seldom studies on dietary behavior of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study has been to know, by means of a previously validated questionnaire, which are the psycho-sociocultural factors that affect, and to what extent, assumption and adherence the dietary therapy while determining the degree of disease perception and several factors related with it. The study population is comprised by 81 patients from the nephrology clinic of the "12 de Octubre" Hospital of Madrid, with CRF in a pre-dialysis status. Seventy-seven point seventy-four percent answered "well" or "very well" to questions relating to disease knowledge and perception. Emotional and auto-management factors have little relevance according to 69.87% of patients. Fifty-nine point twenty-six percent feel a high level of familial support, and 35.77% alters dietary behavior when environmental conditions change. Most of the interviewees (87.65%) do not have difficulties finding the prescribed foods, and 70.37% considers their cost is not excessive. For almost half of the patients (48.76%), renal protection diet represents a variation in their dietary habits, a similar percentage expresses difficulty with elaboration. Food palatability is not a problem in 67.90% of the cases. Fifty-one point twenty-four percent does not perceive difficulty with cooking procedures.Seventy point ninety-nine percent feels support in one way or the other, by health care staff, although just 56.79% reports that the diet has not been explained to them. Only 18.51% questions the diet effectiveness as regards to their disease course. As for the gender variable, there were significant differences (p < 0.05), with a higher influence on men, in sections relating to disease knowledge, and influence of apathy and family support, the women those having the highest scores for food management, diet transgression at family meetings, and less information received about the prescribed diet. As for family support, there are significant differences only by age groups, patients aged more than 65 years being those feeling more this psychological support. The group of patients with a creatinine clearance less than 25 mL/min is the one expressing less categorically their appreciation on diet effectiveness. There are factors in which significant difficulty percentages are observed and that may induce diet transgression,in some cases without the patient being completely aware of, such as environmental changes, change in traditional habits, the degree of diet explanation, the organoleptic characteristics, and the lack of knowledge of appropriate cooking procedures. All these indicators confirm the need for enhancing nutritional education of these patients and their family environment, also showing the need for a nutritional intervention that completely supports patients in the process of adaptation and maintenance of their new dietary habit.

Keywords : Chronic renal failure; Adherence; Dietary accomplishment; Conditioning factors; Renal diet; Environmental influence; Dietary habits; Cooking techniques.

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