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vol.26 suppl.2Recomendaciones para el soporte nutricional y metabólico especializado del paciente crítico: Actualización. Consenso SEMICYUC-SENPE: Valoración del estado nutricionalRecomendaciones para el soporte nutricional y metabólico especializado del paciente crítico: Actualización. Consenso SEMICYUC-SENPE: Insuficiencia renal aguda índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611


BONET SARIS, A.; MARQUEZ VACARO, J. A.  y  SERON ARBELOA, C.. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Macronutrient and micronutrient requirements. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2011, vol.26, suppl.2, pp.16-20. ISSN 1699-5198.

Energy requirements are altered in critically-ill patients and are influenced by the clinical situation, treatment, and phase of the process. Therefore, the most appropriate method to calculate calorie intake is indirect calorimetry. In the absence of this technique, fixed calorie intake (between 25 and 35 kcal/kg/day) or predictive equations such as the Penn State formula can be used to obtain a more accurate evaluation of metabolic rate. Carbohydrate administration should be limited to a maximum of 4 g/kg/day and a minimum of 2 g/kg/day. Plasma glycemia should be controlled to avoid hyperglycemia. Fat intake should be between 1 and 1.5 g/kg/day. The recommended protein intake is 1-1.5 g/kg/day but can vary according to the patient's clinical status. Particular attention should be paid to micronutrient intake. Consensus is lacking on micronutrient requirements. Some vitamins (A, B, C, E) are highly important in critically-ill patients, especially those undergoing conti - nuous renal replacement techniques, patients with severe burns and alcoholics, although the specific requirements in each of these types of patient have not yet been esta - blished. Energy and protein intake in critically-ill patients is complex, since both clinical factors and the stage of the process must be taken into account. The first step is to calculate each patient's energy requirements and then proceed to distribute calorie intake among its three components: proteins, carbohydrates and fat. Micronutrient requirements must also be considered.

Palabras clave : Macronutrients; Micronutrients; Enteral nutrition; Parenteral nutrition.

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