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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611


BONFANTI, Noelia; FERNANDEZ, Juan Marcelo; GOMEZ-DELGADO, Francisco  and  PEREZ-JIMENEZ, Francisco. Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2014, vol.29, n.3, pp.635-643. ISSN 1699-5198.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the detection of at least three criteria (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, hypertension, obesity and altered fasting glucose). Visceral fat excess would be the starting point for its development. Scientific evidence supports hypocaloric diets -mediterranean or low fat diet and rich in complex carbohydrates diet included- as the best treatment to reduce fat mass (FM), maximizing its impact by combining them with physical exercise (PE). However, the effects of these treatments on basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients with MetS, are unknown. Objective: To study the effect of the hypocaloric diet -mediterranean or low fat diet- with or without PE on the BMR and body composition (BC) of adults with MetS. Methods: 36 volunteers, MetS, both sexes, > 50 years, meeting the inclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned to a group of intervention (3 months) of hypocaloric diet: mediterranean diet (MED), low fat and rich in complex carbohydrates diet (CHO) and both combined with PE (MEDE and CHOE respectively). Anthropometric data was taken (weight, muscle mass (MM) and FM) and BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, before and after intervention. Results: The addition of PE to both hypocaloric treatments produced greater FM loss and weight loss than dieting alone, being this loss in CHOE > MEDE (p < 0.05). These groups decreased the BMR after treatment being MEDE > CHOE (p < 0.05). Mediterranean diet with or without PE lost MM (p < 0.05) being MEDE > MED Conclusions: CHOE induces less reduction of BMR while supporting a better profile of BC than MEDE.

Keywords : Metabolic syndrome; Low fat hypocaloric diet; Mediterranean hypocaloric diet; Physical exercise; Basal metabolic rate.

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