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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611


MORENO VILLARES, José Manuel. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: the first 1000 days. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2016, vol.33, suppl.4, pp.8-11. ISSN 1699-5198.

Development during fetal life and infancy is characterized by rapid growth as well as the maturation of organs and systems. Changes, both in quality and quality, in nutrients during these periods may permanently influence the way these organs mature and function. These effects are termed as "programming" and play an important role in the presence of non-transmissible diseases through the lifespan. Specially cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and carbohydrate intolerance. Nutritional deficits during pregnancy, leading to intrauterine growth restriction, are associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease among the offspring. This influence does not stop with the delivery but early nutrition in infancy, type of lactation, and the way and time solid foods are introduced, does play a role in this programming. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors alter the expression of some genes, resulting in effective remodeling of tissue structure and functionality. These epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to further generations, adding evidence that hereditable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. But, at the same time, it opens a window of opportunity to decrease the burden of non-transmissible disease by a clever advise on nutrition during pregnancy and across the first 2 years of life (the so-called 1000 days strategy).

Palabras clave : Programming; Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes; Feeding; Breastfeeding.

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