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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611


OROZCO-ARBELAEZ, Edilberto; BANEGAS, José Ramón; RODRIGUEZ-ARTALEJO, Fernando  and  LOPEZ-GARCIA, Esther. Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2017, vol.34, n.4, pp.841-846. ISSN 1699-5198.

Background: There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. Objective: To assess the influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Methodology: Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, < 10 g/day, and ≥ 10 g/day. Validated MMSE scores for Spain were obtained during an interview and different cutoff points were used to define ≤ 25, ≤ 24 and ≤ 23. Linear and logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted beta coefficients and odds ratios (OR). Results: Compared to non-consumers, participants with a habitual chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend < 0.001). Total chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Conclusion: Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

Keywords : Chocolate; Dementia; Mild cognitive impairment; Elderly.

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