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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611


CUSSO SEGURA, Xavier; GAMBOA, Gonzalo  and  PUJOL ANDREU, Josep. The nutritional status of the Spanish population, 1860-2010: an approach to gender and generational differences. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2018, vol.35, n.spe5, pp.11-18.  Epub July 06, 2020. ISSN 1699-5198.


the main changes in the diet and the intake of energy and macronutrients as a result of the Nutritional Transition in Spain (NTS) are well known, but the intake of micronutrients and the overall nutritional status of the population are much less well known.


to propose new indicators to estimate the intake of nutrients among different social groups during the NTS, with special attention to vulnerable groups such as women, pregnant women and minors.


we estimate the nutritional needs of different social groups in Spain between 1860 and 2011, based on their demographic, anthropometric and professional characteristics, and we compare these results with new estimates of apparent and real consumption, using the energy demands of different groups as reference.


From the late 19th century onwards, with the exception of the period 1936-1950, the food intake of the Spanish population has increasingly covered their needs in terms of energy and nutrients. Some micronutrients, however, were only incorporated slowly and late, especially among minors, adult women and pregnant women. As was the case in other countries, the intake of these nutrients from the late 20th century onwards has been excessive and unbalanced.


differences in the nutritional state of various social groups remained significant until the late 20th century. Improvements greatly benefited the adult male population, and to a lesser extent the female and infant population. These deficiencies chiefly concerned essential micronutrients for growth and physical activity.

Keywords : Nutritional status; Spain; Micronutrients; Women; Minors; Diet.

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