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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611


DORAME-LOPEZ, Norma Alicia  y  ESPARZA-ROMERO, Julián. Effectiveness of multicomponent lifestyle intervention programs on adiposity indicators in schoolchildren from vulnerable groups: a review article. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2022, vol.39, n.5, pp.1122-1134.  Epub 19-Dic-2022. ISSN 1699-5198.

Vulnerable groups are those who, due to their age, sex, race/ethnicity, health status, income level, etc., are at higher risk of poor health. Vulnerable school populations are distinguished by having predisposing factors to overweight and obesity, which results in a greater risk of suffering from the disease and its ravages. Additionally, the effects of the COVID-19 contingency can worsen the situation. Previous reviews of prevention, treatment and control of the disease have focused on schoolchildren from high- and middle-income countries. The objective of this review was to gather the evidence from the studies that evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent lifestyle intervention programs (MLIP) on adiposity indicators in vulnerable populations. Five electronic databases were searched: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria were schoolchildren (5 to 12 years old), inhabitants of rural area, with low socioeconomic level and/or belonging to an indigenous community. Randomized and quasi-experimental controlled trials were included. Interventions that included two or more of the following components were considered: physical activity, nutrition, psychology, school meals and/or family/community involvement. Of the 11 interventions included 73 % had significant improvements in at least one variable related to adiposity. The most successful interventions had components of nutrition, physical activity and family/community involvement, the majority (80 %) had a duration of ≥ 6 months and were provided, in 80 % of the cases, by previously trained teachers. In conclusion, there is evidence that MLIPs are effective in improving indicators of adiposity in vulnerable schoolchildren.

Palabras clave : Adiposity; Obesity; Child; Ethnic groups; Rural population; Vulnerable populations.

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