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Avances en Odontoestomatología

versão On-line ISSN 2340-3152versão impressa ISSN 0213-1285

Resumo

PALMA PENA, S et al. Influence of diabetes mellitus in orthodontic treatment. A review of the literature. Av Odontoestomatol [online]. 2021, vol.37, n.3, pp.140-146.  Epub 16-Ago-2021. ISSN 2340-3152.

Introduction:

An increasing number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are now seeking orthodontic treatment. It is necessary to know the influence of DM on orthodontic treatment. This literature review aims to evaluate the influence of DM on orthodontic treatment.

Review:

There are few clinical studies on the behavior of diabetics under orthodontic forces, being performed on animal models. DM alters the immune response, thus inflammation and extracellular matrix synthesis. The orthodontic force produces an imbalance between extracellular matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, altering the activity of fibroblasts. This imbalance affects diabetics faster and longer. Collagen remodeling in diabetic animals slows down bone regeneration, weakening of the periodontal ligament (PL) and gingival microangiopathies. High levels of cytokines and pro-inflammatory chemokines present in diabetics amplify inflammation, which may explain the greater number of osteoclasts relative to patients without DM. In DM, osteoclasts show longer action after orthodontic forces, causing high levels of bone destruction and LP degradation. Uncontrolled DM can delay orthodontic treatment, so in this case it would be contraindicated. It has been observed that normal glycemia transforms diabetics into healthy ones when faced with orthodontic forces, normalizing periodontal and alveolar responses.

Conclusions:

In animals, DM has shown increased destruction of PL and alveolar bone and decreased effectiveness of orthodontic movement. To perform orthodontic treatment, it is essential that the DM is controlled.

Palavras-chave : Bone Remodeling; Diabetes Mellitus; Orthodontics.

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