SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.21 issue6Misconduct by researchers and authorsComparison of two methods to identify factors associated with the onset of cannabis use in a cohort study author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


FERNANDEZ, Mariana F.; OLMOS, Begoña  and  OLEA, Nicolás. Exposure to endocrine disruptors and male urogenital tract malformations [cryptorchidism and hypospadias]. Gac Sanit [online]. 2007, vol.21, n.6, pp.500-514. ISSN 0213-9111.

Background: It has been proposed that the intrauterine period of child-mother exposure to hormonally active compounds (endocrine disruptors) is of critical importance. Objective: We reviewed all Spanish and English-language epidemiological studies published between 1990 and the first trimester of 2006 that studied the possible association between human exposure to chemical compounds and the risk of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias. Methods: The MEDLINE (PubMed) database was searched using the following key words: endocrine disruptors, organochlorine pesticides, xenoestrogens, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Selection of the 16 studies included was based on the following criteria: study design and population, the measures of exposure used, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the statistical analysis used. Results and conclusions: Although the studies reviewed do not conclusively confirm the association between exposure to endocrine disruptors and the risk of male genital malformation, this association cannot be ruled out. Further in-depth investigation of this association is required. Issues that remain to be resolved are the diagnostic classification to be used and appropriate measurement of exposure to multiple chemical compounds and environmental contaminants that act conjointly through mechanisms similar to endogenous hormones.

Keywords : Endocrine disruptors; Environmental estrogens; Cryptorchidism; Hypospadias; Risk factors; Occupational exposure; Pesticides; Systematic rewiew.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in Spanish     · Spanish ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License