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Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


VAZQUEZ, Noelia; MOLINA, M Cruz; RAMOS, Pilar  and  ARTAZCOZ, Lucía. Effectiveness of a parent-training program in Spain: reducing the Southern European evaluation gap. Gac Sanit [online]. 2019, vol.33, n.1, pp.10-16.  Epub Oct 28, 2019. ISSN 0213-9111.


We implemented and evaluated the Parenting Skills Program for families in Spain 1) to examine differences in parenting skills, social support, children's behaviours and parental stress pre, immediately post and six months post intervention and 2) to identify mechanisms by which the intervention is related to changes in the four outcomes examined.


Quasi-experimental study design with pre (T0), post (T1), a follow-up (T2) and no control group, complemented by a qualitative study was used. The outcome variables were social support, parenting skills, parental stress and children's behaviours. 216 parents completed pre and post questionnaire and 130 parents the follow-up questionnaire. 39 professionals and 34 parents participated in 17 interviews and 5 discussion groups.


Compared with T0, all four outcomes improved significantly at T1. 76% of the participants improved parenting skills and 61% social support. 56% reduced children's negative behaviours and 66% parental stress. All outcomes maintained this significant improvement at T2. Parents and professionals describe different changes in parents’ parenting skills, stress and social support after participation in the PSP, and in their children's behaviours. Some subcategories emerged after analysing parents’ and professionals’ discourses.


This study describes positive parenting effects on participants of a parent-training program in Spain, which is a country where implementation and evaluation of these kind of interventions is an incipient issue.

Keywords : Parent-training; Program evaluation; Social support; Parenting skills; Parental stress; Child behavior.

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