SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.33 issue3Trends in cancer mortality in Spain: the influence of the financial crisisThe road to patient safety: facts and desire author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


TORRE, Jorge Arias-de la et al. Mental health, family roles and employment status inside and outside the household in Spain. Gac Sanit [online]. 2019, vol.33, n.3, pp.235-241.  Epub Nov 25, 2019. ISSN 0213-9111.


To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household.


A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and social class were fitted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained.


Gender and social class differences in the prevalence of poor mental health were observed. Unemployment was associated with higher prevalence. Among men the main breadwinner role was related to poor mental health mainly in those that belong to manual classes (aOR = 1.2). Among women, mainly among nonmanual classes, these problems were associated to marital status: widowed, separated or divorced (aOR = 1.9) and to dealing with the household work by themselves (aOR = 1.9).


In Spain, gender and social class differences in mental health still exist. In addition, family roles and working situation, both inside and outside the household, could constitute a source of inequalities in mental health.

Keywords : Mental health; Occupational health; Gender; Socioeconomic factors; Health survey.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in English     · English ( pdf )