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Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


DUQUE, Ignacio et al. Deprivation index by enumeration district in Spain, 2011. Gac Sanit [online]. 2021, vol.35, n.2, pp.113-122.  Epub Nov 29, 2021. ISSN 0213-9111.


To present the methodology used in the design and implementation of a deprivation index by enumeration district, and to describe the socioeconomic situation of Spain in 2011.


The unit of analysis was the enumeration district (N=35,960). Data came from the 2011 Population and Housing Census of Spain. Given both the sampling nature of the Census and the regulatory limitations of data confidentiality, variables were calculated indirectly by using the complement of the available variables. Checks were made to ensure reliability. The selection of the indicators took into account comparability with the MEDEA index. The inclusion of additional information was explored. A deprivation index was built using Principal Component Analysis. Sensitivity analysis of the index was performed for urban areas and the rest of the regions.


Using the census information, 22 indicators were calculated for 35,917 enumeration districts. The deprivation index was based on six indicators: manual and temporary workers, unemployment, insufficient education overall and in young people (aged 16 to 29 years), and dwellings without access to the internet. The map of Spain shows a gradient of decreasing deprivation from south-west to north-east.


The socioeconomic information of the 2011 census by enumeration district was used systematically. The drafted index, similar to the MEDEA, will facilitate the updated study of health inequalities for Spain overall following the economic recession that began in 2008.

Keywords : Small area; Census; Spain; Socioeconomic factors; Deprivation index; Health inequalities.

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