SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.36 issue5Cross-cultural adaptation, content validity, and feasibility of the school physical activity and nutrition environment toolHow do the different dimensions of precarious employment affect mental health? author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


BEGONA-ZUBERO, Miren et al. Serum metal levels in a population of Spanish pregnant women. Gac Sanit [online]. 2022, vol.36, n.5, pp.468-476.  Epub Mar 13, 2023. ISSN 0213-9111.


To describe serum levels of calcium, copper, selenium, magnesium, iron and zinc and evaluate their relationship with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and dietary variables in women in the first trimester of pregnancy.


Cross-sectional study with 1279 participants from the INMA cohorts.


The concentrations of the elements analyzed were within the normal range. Associations with higher levels of these metals were found for calcium with white meat intake (p = 0.026), for copper with excess body weight (p < 0.01), low social class (p = 0.03) and being multipara (p < 0.01), for magnesium with being over 35 years old (p = 0.001), high social class (p = 0.044), primiparous status (p = 0.002) and low daily intake of bread (p = 0.009) and legumes (p = 0.020); for zinc with university education (p = 0.039) and residence in Gipuzkoa (p < 0.01), and for selenium with residence in Valencia (p< 0.01), university education (p = 0.001), vitamin B6 supplementation (p = 0.006), fish intake (> 71 g/day) (p = 0.014) and having been born in Spain (p = 0.001). Further, lower iron levels were associated with being overweight (p = 0.021) or obese (p < 0.001) and vitamin B12 supplementation (p = 0.006).


Our results suggest that trace elements in the analyzed cohorts are adequate for this stage of pregnancy. The variability in these elements is mainly linked to socio-demographic and anthropometric variables.

Keywords : Serum; Trace elements; Pregnancy.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in English     · English ( pdf )