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Gaceta Sanitaria

Print version ISSN 0213-9111


VALCARCEL-NAZCO, Cristina et al. Cost-effectiveness of universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis A in Spain: a dynamic approach. Gac Sanit [online]. 2023, vol.37, 102292.  Epub May 03, 2023. ISSN 0213-9111.


To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of infant universal vaccination against hepatitis A in Spain.


Using a dynamic model and decision tree model, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to compare three vaccination strategies against hepatitis A: non-vaccination strategy versus universal childhood vaccination of hepatitis A with one or two doses. The perspective of the study was that of the National Health System (NHS) and a lifetime horizon was considered. Both costs and effects were discounted at 3% per year. Health outcomes were measured in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALY) and the cost-effectiveness measure used was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In addition, deterministic sensitivity analysis by scenarios was performed.


In the particular case of Spain, with low endemicity for hepatitis A, the difference in health outcomes between vaccination strategies (with 1 or 2 doses) and non-vaccination are practically non-existent, terms of QALY. In addition, the ICER obtained is high, exceeding the limits of willingness to pay from Spain (€22,000-25,000/QALY). The deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the variations of the key parameters, although in no case the vaccination strategies are cost-effective.


Universal infant vaccination strategy against hepatitis A would not be a cost-effective option from the NHS perspective in Spain.

Keywords : Cost-benefit analysis; Hepatitis A vaccines; Mass vaccination; Infant; Child; Spain.

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