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Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo

versión On-line ISSN 1989-7790versión impresa ISSN 0465-546X


PASTRANA-JIMENEZ, J.I.; FERNANDEZ-LABANDERA, C.; RAMOS-MUNOZ, R.  y  CARRASCO-PERERA, J.L.. Clinical, social and labour features of psychiatric patients at the end of temporary nonoccupational disability. Med. segur. trab. [online]. 2013, vol.59, n.231, pp.205-226. ISSN 1989-7790.

Objective: Psychiatric Pathology is a major problem because it is the main cause of loss of quality of life while it generates large individual, social and economic costs. Despite the mentioned above, few data are available on the clinical features of psychiatric work disabled patients. We aim to describe the mentioned features in patients with temporary disability for more than 12 months and to investigate the factors associated with chronicity or disability. Methods: A total of 97 patients with temporary disability for more than 12 months were selected from all of the patients referred to our office by the INSS for psychiatric evaluation. Main clinical, social and labour features were recorded in addition to the diagnosis, according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Symptom Intensity scales (MADRS and WHODAS O) were used. Results: Our sample had a balanced sex ratio and an average age of 47 years. Patients usually described an experience of moderate social support and 51.5% of them were living as a couple. A third of the patients had primary education at most. A noteworthy physical illness background was found in 78.4% of them, 50.5% had smoking habits and 59% had family history of psychiatric disorders. All of these conditions tend to be associated with low functionality and longer treatments. We have found a 71.1% diagnostic agreement and the most frequent diagnosis-related group were affective disorders. In the group of patients without functional limitation, adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis. It was associated to shorter treatments and lower levels of Symptom Intensity. The scales that we used correlated with each other. GAF and WHODAS O distinguish adjustment disorders in non-disabled patients while MADRS points out affective disorders. Decisions made after assessment were: no disability in 46.39% of the patients, grant an extension of paid sick leave days in 11.34%, permanent occupational disability to work in their previous job in 29.90% and permanent occupational disability to work in any job in 12.37%. Patients with permanent occupational disability were associated with low social support, prolonged psychiatric follow-up, family history of psychiatric disorders and diagnosis other than adjustment disorder. Conclusions: The functional assessment of psychiatric patients after a 12-month period of temporary disability showed no disability in 46.39% of the patients and it is usually bound to adjustment disorder. Psychometric scales may mark occupational disability. Markers of severity and dysfunction have been identified like social support experience, absence of a partner, psychiatric follow-up span, family history of psychiatric disorders and psychometric scales. Physical comorbidity is highly frequent and smoking habits are disturbing among psychiatric patients. Similar studies are needed to confirm our results and increase knowledge on this subject.

Palabras clave : Temporary disability by psychiatric illness; psychiatric functional evaluation; long-term work disability; social support.

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