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Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo

versión On-line ISSN 1989-7790versión impresa ISSN 0465-546X


VICENTE PARDO, José Manuel. Anisakis and Disease as an Occupational Disease. Med. segur. trab. [online]. 2016, vol.62, n.244, pp.223-240. ISSN 1989-7790.

Anisakis is a complex parasite found in marine animals. The human being is not the appropriate host, since the L3 larvae cannot complete its life cycle from within, thus making it an accidental or occasional host that stands in the life cycle of the nematode. The anisakis can cause both parasitism and allergy when the following infected food is eaten: raw fish or cephalopods, undercooked sushi, sashimi, Norwegian gravlax ceviche, Hawaiian lomi-lomi and fish in brine, vinegar, dried, smoked, semi-conserve, or salted. They might contain this parasite in the third-stage larvae form, L3. Anisakis diseases constitute a problem for the public health and its incidence has increased in recent years. In 2012, 20,000 anisakis cases were reported worldwide. Spain is the second country with the highest number of poisoning due to anisakis after Japan. Several studies in Spain on the prevalence of sensitization reflect a high prevalence among patients who have suffered episodes of allergic reactions. 50% of the people who are directly handling fish present anisakis sensitivity. Thus being increasingly affected by common development and work, turning out in processes considered as an occupational disease where the determining circumstances are grounds for work, risk and exposure that it should attend. The condition may occur both work contact and contact in the regular consumption of infested fish, which will make it difficult to estimate as exclusive or consequential onset of the disease as a result of job performance cause. Labor sectors anisakis disease risk are fishermen, fishmongers and cooks. In general, all those who work both in the capture, cleaning, handling, sale, processing or preparation of contaminated fish. We describe in this article anisakis diseases, risk jobs and the characteristics that should gather for occupational disease and two illustrative cases whose consideration was such this labour contingency. Conclusions: Anisakis diseases and its consideration as an occupational disease is subject to the definition of what is considered in our legal norm in Spain, which means that it is a disease contracted as a result of work activities described in the box of occupational diseases and the action of the agents or substances listed in Annex I of the current frame diseases. In addition, in order to be recognised as an occupational disease we must have a firm diagnosis (Table occupational disease), a causative agent (referred to in the list) and an exposure to anisakis developed in the course of work (activities included in the list). The list box or occupational disease frame is a closed causal agent and caused diseases, and the attachment is not easy. Parasitism would fit in the group of diseases by biological agents; allergy disease could discuss its assignment but it has also usually been included in this group; asthma would collect in the group of respiratory diseases (caused by inhalation according to the legal text) and dermal manifestations in the group of occupational skin diseases. Occupational exposure to anisakis is necessary and essential for the process of being qualified as occupational disease, and although this exhibition is not always well defined must be tested. There may have been a sensitization out of work and an onset or development of the disease by repeated exposure or contact with the anisakis at work which would complicate its occupational qualification.

Palabras clave : Anisakis; occupational disease; asthma anisakis; anisakis allergy; occupational disease anisakis.

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