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Psychosocial Intervention

versión On-line ISSN 2173-4712versión impresa ISSN 1132-0559


FUSTER-RUIZ DE APODACA, María José et al. Determinants of late diagnosis of HIV infection in Spain. Psychosocial Intervention [online]. 2014, vol.23, n.3, pp.177-185. ISSN 2173-4712.

The main goal of this study was to analyse the determinants of late diagnosis of HIV infection. Secondly, we studied the role of the perception of risk and sexual orientation in HIV testing. Twenty-five people with late HIV diagnosis were interviewed. They were contacted through hospitals and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). To design the interview, we integrated the variables considered in the main models of health-related behaviour. We followed a mixed strategy of analysis. Firstly, we carried out thematic analysis of the interviews, followed by quantitative analysis of the initially qualitative data. The results revealed that the most relevant determinants were the appraisal of the threat of HIV and the low perception of HIV risk. Also, the study found many missed opportunities for diagnosis in health-care setting. Low perception of HIV risk was related to unrealistic optimism, low levels of information about HIV, and the presence of stereotypes about people with HIV. High perception of HIV risk was related to strategies to avoid testing. Homosexuals reported a more positive balance between the benefits of knowing their diagnosis and having the disease. The results provide clues that can guide the design of future strategies to promote early diagnosis.

Palabras clave : HIV; Late diagnosis; Determinants of health behaviour; Qualitative study.

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