SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.20 número2Políticas públicas brasileñas para las personas mayoresPrevalencia de úlceras por presión en una zona básica de salud índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google



versión impresa ISSN 1134-928X


DIAZ MARTINEZ, Juana Mª et al. A Pressure ulcers after hip or knee surgery. Gerokomos [online]. 2009, vol.20, n.2, pp.84-91. ISSN 1134-928X.

Introduction: Patients treated by surgical procedures have high risk for developing pressure ulcers. Some studies found a high incidence of pressure ulcers (PU) in patients after surgical orthopaedic interventions. Several factors increasing risk have been proposed, although this is a controversial point. Aims: The aims of this research were: a) To obtain epidemiological data about pressure ulcers frequency in patients treated by hip or knee replacement surgery; b) To establish if some surgery-related factors are associated with pressure ulcers development; c) To assess how appropriate is the pressure ulcers prevention protocol for these patients. Methods: Prospective and longitudinal research carried out in the Unit of Post-anaesthetic Reanimation and two Traumatologia wards in a University Hospital, between January and June in 2008. Inclusion: Adults patients treated by hip replacement, knee replacement or hip fracture surgical repair. Exclusion: Patients with PU previous to surgery. A convenience sample of patients was selected with a sample size estimated in 89 patients. The observation of the patients began in the Unit of Post-anaesthetic Reanimation, immediately after surgery and continued in the wards. The follow-up period was until discharge or 10 days, with re-assess-ment every 48 hours. The main outcome was pressure ulcer development and as independent variables were recorded several surgery-related factors. Pressure ulcer risk was measured by EMINA scale. Results: 91 patients were finally included in the research; a 76.9% of whom were female. Patient´s average age was 72.2 years (±8.4). Almost all the patients were in PU risk, according to EMINA scale (medium risk: 19.8%, high risk: 76.9%). 18 patients (19.8%) developed PU in the hospital after surgery. PU grading was: fourteen ulcers (66.6%) grade 1; six (28.6%) grade 2 and one (4.8%) was a non-gradable ulcer (necrotic scar). The average time until PU appearance was 3.72 days (CI95%: 2.73 - 4.71). Preventive measures application was irregular: visco-elastic mattresses (100%); turning out (0%); hyperoxigenated fatty acids (69.2%), heel protection (42.9%). By univariate analysis no association was found between PU and these factors: sex, hospital ward, type of anaesthesia, ASA anaesthetic risk, PU risk, age, surgery duration, lower extremity ischemia duration and post-surgery level of pain. Surgical procedure was in the limit of Statistical significance (p= 0.059), with higher PU incidence among patients with hip surgery. Conclusions: Patients treated by hip or knee surgery (replacement or fracture repair) have high risk for PU, which results in a high postoperative PU incidence. There is not an association between PU development and surgery- related factors. Possibly, hip fracture surgical repair associates with higher PU frequency. The four days following surgery are critical, because fifty percent of the PU appear in this period. Preventive measures application was irregular, so a revision of the suitability of the protocol to these patients is needed and, also, to improve its implementation.

Palabras clave : Pressure ulcers; surgery; hip replacement; knee replacement; epidemiology.

        · resumen en Español     · texto en Español     · Español ( pdf )


Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons