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Revista Española de Salud Pública

versión On-line ISSN 2173-9110versión impresa ISSN 1135-5727


SALMERON GARCIA, Francisco et al. Polio vaccines, eradication and posterradication. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2013, vol.87, n.5, pp.497-505. ISSN 2173-9110.

Vaccination against polio generates herd immunity (both with the attenuated (OPV) and inactivated (IPV) vaccines) and this will allow the eradication of the disease. The OPV vaccine produces 2-4 polio cases per cohort of one million children and therefore IPV is used in countries that can afford its cost (about 15 times more expensive than OPV). In 1988 the World Health Assembly established the polio eradication goal as "interruption of wild poliovirus transmission". If the elimination of wild poliovirus were achieved, the use of OPV will produce annually between 250 and 500 cases of polio in the world. From 1999, it was clear that eradication would require ending of immunization with OPV. On the 25th of January, 2013 it is approved the plan for the eradication and containment of all polioviruses, wild or not, so that no child suffers paralytic poliomyelitis. The most important landmarks include the lack of wild polio cases after 2014, the introduction of at least one dose of IPV in all immunization programs and to cease the type 2 OPV vaccination by the end of 2016 and to stop the use of the oral bivalent vaccine in 2019. To achieve all this, a complex scientific work and economic solidarity will be required.

Palabras clave : Poliovirus; Poliomyelitis; Polio vaccine, oral; Poliovirus vaccine, inactivated; Polio eradication.

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