SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.93Skin to skin contact after cesarean delivery. Theme update and actuation proposalEpidemiology and sociodemographic characterization of the fibromyalgia in Comunidad Valenciana author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Revista Española de Salud Pública

On-line version ISSN 2173-9110Print version ISSN 1135-5727


GALLEGO REYES, Sandra María et al. Fluoride and heavy metals concentration in bottled waters: barrier measures against dental caries and fluorosis. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2019, vol.93, e201912110.  Epub Sep 07, 2020. ISSN 2173-9110.


The daily consumption of fluoridated water is one of the most beneficial measures in dental caries prevention. The objective of this paper was to analyze the content of fluorine and heavy metals in the bottled natural mineral water available in stores in Spain.


A descriptive and transversal study was done throughout 2019. Analysing a total of 20 bottled waters marketed in Spain during this year. Mainly, fluoride concentration (ppm/ml) was analyzed with an ion-specific electrode (Orion model 96-09, Orion Research, Cambridge, MA) coupled to an ion analyzer (Orion EA-940). The heavy metals were analyzed by ICP-MS (Agilent model 7900). A descriptive statistical study of the data was carried out.


The minimum value of fluorine found was 0.05 ppm and the maximum 0.95 ppm. 80% of the brands analyzed contain less than 0.6 ppm F. Only 1 brand exceeds 0.8 ppm F. Chromium and arsenic were the heavy metals present in all brands, without exceeding the maximum dose. No brand of bottled water indicated heavy metals on the label, and only 1 mark indicated the fluoride concentration on the label.


There is a great variability in the chemical composition of bottled waters marketed in Spain. Most have a fluoride concentration lower than that recommended to prevent tooth decay, which would require an extra supply of fluoride. In the bottled waters analyzed there are heavy metals but they did not exceed the maximum doses established by legislation.

Keywords : Dental caries; Fluoride; Bottled water; Dental fluorosis; Heavy metals.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in Spanish     · Spanish ( pdf )