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Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Ed. impresa)

Print version ISSN 1698-4447


EXPOSITO DELGADO, Antonio Javier; VALLEJO BOLANOS, Encarnación  and  MARTOS COBO, Eva Gloria. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in infants: a review article. Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Ed.impr.) [online]. 2004, vol.9, n.5, pp.410-420. ISSN 1698-4447.

The vast majority of children with HIV infection present oral manifestations among the first signs of illness. These lesions are not produced directly by the virus, but are manifestations associated with HIV infection, and are not pathognomic of the infection itself. Some of these oral lesions have a prognostic value with regard to progression of the infection and the appearance of AIDS; independently of other, more commonly used markers. The essential risk factors that influence the development of such oral manifestations are the low number of CD4+ lymphocytes, xerostomia, and the lack of anti-retroviral therapy. Opportunist infections, such as mycoses - including pseudomembranous oral candidiasis, are found with higher frequency; followed by the herpetic viral infections. The oral lesions that appear in infected children differ in prevalence from those found in seropositive adults, some, such as parotid hypertrophy, present more exclusively in children, others, such as periodontal bacterial infections and Kaposi's Sarcoma, are lesions that predominate in the adult HIV-infected population. Given the current impact of the pandemic caused by HIV, it is the responsibility of dental professionals to prevent, detect, treat and control the oral lesions in those patients infected with HIV. All of which will be reflected in a reduction in transmission, lower mortality and greater long-term survival for infected children.

Keywords : HIV infection; AIDS; oral candidiasis; parotid hypertrophy.

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