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Enfermería Nefrológica

versión On-line ISSN 2255-3517versión impresa ISSN 2254-2884


GARRIDO PEREZ, Luis; SANZ TURRADO, María  y  CARO DOMINGUEZ, Carmen. Variables of malnutrition in dialysis patients. Enferm Nefrol [online]. 2016, vol.19, n.4, pp.307-316. ISSN 2255-3517.

Introduction: The patient on dialysis will suffer from protein-caloric malnutrition, with different factors involved in its onset, which is associated with very high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prevalence of malnutrition in the hemodialysis population of 18- 75% has been estimated, being therefore a problem of special relevance in this type of patients. Objective: A literature review of the existing scientific articles on the variables involved in malnutrition of patients on dialysis was carried out. Methods: A bibliographic review has been done using the PubMed, Scielo, ProQuest databases. The search used Mesh terms, with an age of no more than 5 years and with different keywords. Results: Nineteen articles were reviewed. Most articles were observational and review studies. The factors that are associated with malnutrition are age, loss of muscle mass, low physical activity and diet deficient in micronutrients. Another very important factor is inflammation. Regarding the diagnostic methods are varied and different, due to the large number of variables that influence malnutrition. Conclusions: Malnutrition in dialysis patients depends on different variables and not only on the diet. The factors that are associated with malnutrition are older age, loss of muscle mass, low physical activity and diet deficient in micronutrients. In addition, we should add the dual role of inflammation in this process as it can be both a consequence and a predisposing factor to malnutrition.

Palabras clave : malnutrition; dialysis; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; inflammation; protein-energy depletion.

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