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Ars Pharmaceutica (Internet)

On-line version ISSN 2340-9894


ESQUIVEL-PRADOS, Elisabet; PAREJA-MARTINEZ, Elisa  and  GARCIA-CORPAS, José P. Adherence questionnaires to oral antidiabetic treatment in patients with Diabetes Mellitus 2: systematic review. Ars Pharm [online]. 2023, vol.64, n.2, pp.173-186.  Epub July 03, 2023. ISSN 2340-9894.


adherence to oral antidiabetics (OADs) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) can affect disease control and therefore needs to be evaluated. For this, fast, simple, valid and reliable tools are needed. Thus, the objective of this review was to identify those validated questionnaires that are used to measure adherence to OADs in clinical practice.


a bibliographic search was carried out in the Medline, Scopus and LILACS databases. The selection of articles was performed by 2 authors independently based on Prisma recommendations. The selection criteria were: Articles with validated questionnaires in patients with DM2, in Spanish or English and published until 31 November 2022. Reliability tests (internal consistency, item-total correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient) and validity of the questionnaires (construct validity, criteria and content).


23 articles were part of the review.10 questionnaires to measure adherence to the ODAs were obtained, which were validated in 14 countries. The 8-item Self-Reported Medication Adherence Measure (MMAS-8) and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) were the most used. All presented at least one measure of validity and reliability, the validity of known groups being the least used.


There are questionnaires that present better validity or reliability data than others, but it should be the healthcare professional who determines which one best suits their patients or their study.

Keywords : Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Medication Adherence; Hypoglycemic Agents; Surveys and Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results.

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