SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.39 número6Efectividad de las intervenciones nutricionales en la sintomatología conductual del trastorno del espectro autista: revisión sistemáticaVitamina D y polimorfismos de los genes VDR y GC en la severidad y mortalidad por COVID-19. Una revisión sistemática índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Nutr. Hosp. vol.39 no.6 Madrid nov./dic. 2022  Epub 20-Feb-2023 


Effects of exercise on irisin in subjects with overweight or obesity. A systematic review of clinical studies

Efectos del ejercicio sobre la irisina en personas con sobrepeso u obesidad. Una revisión sistemática de estudios clínicos

Camila Bernal-Rivas, conception and design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript draft, manuscript revision and approvement1  ; Ángela Llamunao-Tropa, conception and design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript draft, manuscript revision and approvement1  ; Andrés Reyes-Barría, conception and design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript draft, manuscript revision and approvement1  ; Diego Halabi, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript revision and approvement2  3  ; Francisca Pavicic, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript revision and approvement4  ; Pamela Ehrenfeld, manuscript draft, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript revision and approvement4  5  ; Sergio Martínez-Huenchullán, conception and design, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, manuscript draft, manuscript revision and approvement5  6  7 

1School of Physical Therapy. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile

2Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology. Institute of Anatomy. Histology and Pathology. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile

3Institute of Dentistry. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile

4Laboratory of Cellular Pathology. Institute of Anatomy, Histology & Pathology. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile

5Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios del Sistema Nervioso (CISNe). Valdivia, Chile

6Locomotor Apparatus and Rehabilitation Institute. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile

7Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Function Laboratory - Neyün. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile


Irisin is an adipomyokine involved in white adipose tissue browning, therefore, could be a key protein in metabolic health. However, exercise effects on irisin in subjects with overweight and/or obesity are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review aims to search and analyse the literature available on this topic. From three databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Medline, clinical studies published between 2010 and 2021 were considered. From 134 found, 14 studies were included. Only six reported plasma increases after exercise (~1.2 to 3-fold from pre-exercise levels). In addition, only 1 reported significant increases in skeletal muscle irisin mRNA levels (~2-fold). Also, irisin was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and saliva, where a ~2-fold increase in its protein levels was found in the latter. Exercise seems to increase the circulatory concentrations of irisin in subjects with overweight or obesity. However, this response is highly variable, therefore, a more integrative approach is urgently needed.

Keywords: Exercise; Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5; FNDC5; Overweight; Obesity


La irisina es una adipomioquina relacionada a la transformación del tejido adiposo blanco a marrón, por tanto, podría ser una proteína clave para la salud metabólica. Sin embargo, los efectos del ejercicio sobre la irisina en personas con sobrepeso u obesidad son poco claros. Por lo anterior, esta revisión sistemática apunta a buscar y analizar la literatura disponible en este tema. Desde tres bases de datos: PubMed, ScienceDirect y Medline se buscaron estudios clínicos publicados entre el 2010 y 2021. De 134 estudios encontrados, 14 fueron incluidos. Solo 6 reportaron incrementos plasmáticos de irisina después del ejercicio (~1.2 a 3-veces respecto a niveles preejercicio). Además, solo 1 estudio describió incrementos significativos en el ARNm de irisina en el músculo esquelético (~2 veces sobre niveles preejercicio). La irisina también se medió desde tejido adiposo subcutáneo y saliva, encontrándose una elevación de (~2 veces sobre niveles preejercicio) en esta última. El ejercicio físico incrementaría las concentraciones circulatorias de irisina en personas con sobrepeso u obesidad. Sin embargo, esta respuesta es muy variable, por lo que se requiere una mirada más integrativa a la hora de estudiar este fenómeno.

Palabras clave: Ejercicio; Proteína 5 que contiene el dominio de fibronectina tipo III; FNDC5; Sobrepeso; Obesidad


Obesity is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in adiposity that promotes the development of metabolic dysfunction (1). However, exercise counters this phenomenon in different ways. One of them is to promote the ability of the adipocyte to produce heat (thermogenesis) (2,3). Here, the adipocytes combust nutrients in a “futile” manner in the mitochondria, as a measure to counter energy excess by releasing it as heat, a phenomenon that occurs by the proton flux in the mitochondria, facilitated by uncoupling proteins (uCP), as uCP1 (4). This phenomenon was firstly reported in brown adipocytes; however, in recent years, it has been described in white adipose tissue under the name of “browning” or “beiging” (5).

Considering the potential metabolic benefits of adipocyte browning, irisin has been proposed as a key protein, given its ability to stimulate transcriptional and translational changes towards this process (6). Interestingly, the level of circulating irisin is higher than insulin and lower than leptin, with a molecular weight of 12 kDa (7). Briefly, it was initially described in 2012 by Boström et al. where irisin increases in human and mouse plasma (~2-fold from baseline) were seen after 3 and 10 weeks of exercise, respectively, changes that were accompanied by mRNA increases of FNDC5 (membrane-bound irisin uncleaved form) in mice skeletal muscle (8). Indeed, the C-terminal tail of FNDC5 is in the cytoplasm, whereas the extracellular N-terminal part is released into the circulation as irisin (9). From there, the mechanisms by which irisin acts are still elusive; however, the induction of proteins responsible for browning of white adipose tissue (e.g., cell death inducing DFFA like effector A [Cidea], uncoupling protein 1 [ucp1], PR/SET domain 16 [Prdm16], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha [Pgc1a]) by the presence of irisin is one of the most investigated pathways to date (3,10). Thus, white adipose browning has been suggested as a metabolic benefit derived from exercise, where irisin seems to be a key mediator of that response.

However, most of the studies in the field have been conducted in cell and/or animal models, where most of the clinical data available were obtained in healthy individuals (11,12). While animal studies are congruent with regard to the relationship between physical exertion and irisin release, the RESULTS from human studies are less than clear. Moreover, in the context of obesity and insulin resistance, the evidence is conflicting. For instance, Batitucci et al. described ~3-fold increases in circulating irisin levels in women with obesity after 10 weeks of aerobic exercise (13); however, others with a similar exercise program failed to see significant irisin changes in women with overweight or obesity (14).

Because of the discrepancy seen in clinical studies regarding the effects of exercise on irisin in the context of overweight and obesity, our question is: in adults with overweight and obesity, what are the effects of exercise on irisin levels in clinical studies? Therefore, this review aims to systematically search and analyse the literature available in this topic, to potentially understand the sources of this discrepancy and highlight the gaps in the field.


Three databases were used to conduct the literature searches: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Medline. Original articles that included human participants published between 2010 and August 2021, written in English, were considered. Selected studies included participants between the ages of 18 and 59, with overweight, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and/or type 2 diabetes. Studies that included subjects with associated conditions such as, cancer, heart failure, or stroke and studies with incomplete data were excluded.

The search and selection of studies were conducted as follows: two authors (CB-R and AL-T) reviewed the results from the three databases and selected the studies of interest by reading: a) title; b) abstract; and c) main text. In case of any disagreement between them, a third author (SM-H) decided in favour/against the inclusion of a particular study.

Searches strategies used were as follows: PubMed: “Exercise” [Mesh] AND “FNDC5 protein, human” [Supplementary Concept] AND “Overweight” [Mesh]; Science Direct: (Exercise OR physical activity OR aerobic exercise) AND (Irisin OR FNDC5) AND (overweight OR Obesity); MEDLINE: (MH “Exercise+”) AND “Irisin” AND (MH “Overweight+”). As the primary outcome, we considered irisin changes (circulatory and/or from tissues) by exercise. For this, we defined as baseline (1.0-fold-change) the pre-exercise irisin levels of the participants of each study. Therefore, increases and decreases were expressed as higher or lower than 1 respectively.


From 134 articles found, 14 studies were included in this review as described in figure 1. From these, 8 included only men as participants (15-22), 5 studies focused on women (13,14,23-25) and only one included both men and women (26). In terms of exercise regimes used, the most frequent was an aerobic exercise with 11 studies (13-16,18,20,22-26), followed by resistance (14,17,18,20,26) and combined exercise training programs (17,19). One study did not describe the exercise prescription used (21). Eleven studies considered exercise training (≥ 8 weeks) (13,14,16,17,19-22,24-26), whereas three analyzed the acute effects of exercise after a single session (15,18,23). Among the studies that analyzed the chronic effects of exercise, the frequency ranged from one session to 5 sessions/week, with a duration of 45-60 minutes per session, where the exercise programs lasted from 2 to 6 months.

Figure 1. Flowchart of search and article selection. 

Irisin measurements were made from serum/plasma samples in 13 studies (13-15,17-26), from which only 6 reported significant increases after exercise (13,18,20,21,23,26), changes that ranged from 20 to 300 % compared to pre-exercise levels. In addition, three studies measured the vastus lateralis irisin mRNA levels after exercise training (16,17,20), and only 1 reported a significant increase (~2-fold) (17). Also, irisin was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue (17) and saliva samples (15), where a ~2-fold increase in its protein levels was found in the latter.

A summary of the studies selected for this review is listed in table I.

Table I. Irisin changes in selected studies. 

Table I. (cont.). Irisin changes in selected studies. 

BMI: body mass index; VO2max: maximum oxygen consumption; mRNA: messenger ribonucleic acid; IL-6: interleukin 6; HIIT: high-intensity interval training; MICT: moderate-intensity constant training; HRmax; maximum heart rate; 1RM: maximum one-repetition; VO2peak: peal oxygen consumption; HRR: heart rate reserve; hs-CRP: highly sensitive C reactive protein; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IL-15: interleukin 15; HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin; HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance.


This report aimed to systematically review the literature available regarding the effects of exercise on irisin levels in clinical studies involving subjects with overweight or obesity. As main findings, most of the studies measured irisin exclusively in the circulation, reporting conflicting RESULTS, considering that less than half of the articles reviewed reported significant changes (increases) in irisin concentrations. Moreover, irisin levels in specific tissues (i.e., skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue) were scarcely measured, and only in terms of transcriptional levels.

The variability in terms of irisin changes after exercise is concerning when trying to establish this response as a metabolic benefit derived from this intervention. Interestingly, a handful of studies have attempted to elucidate if the exercise type/modality influences irisin response. For instance, Blizzard LeBlanc et al. compared the effects of aerobic and resistance training effects on the irisin levels of youth with obesity. After one session of each type of exercise, they found that only aerobic training induced a significant irisin increase (27). In opposition, Huh et al. compared two types of aerobic exercise and resistance training on the irisin levels of adult men with metabolic syndrome, finding that resistance but not aerobic training increased irisin plasma levels by 20 % (18), increases of a similar magnitude as described in other study involving young adults with overweight after 8 weeks of resistance training (26). These results suggest that age might play a role considering that most of irisin comes from skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, organs that, in the case of youth/young adults, could be in a better metabolic state than with adults (28).

In line with this, a systematic review by Fox et al. described that fitness level was a strong predictor of exercise-derived increases of irisin in the circulation, where this change was nearly two-fold compared to unfit counterparts (29). Complementarily, another systematic review with meta-analysis found that only long-term resistance training, not aerobic exercise, significantly increased irisin levels in adults (30), which could indicate that a more focused intervention on skeletal muscles might be a more potent stimulus to induce irisin. It is worth mentioning that the authors of this review included studies involving lean subjects with moderate physical activity levels. Moreover, the acute vs. chronic influence of exercise on irisin could also be a source of diversity. For instance, Winn et al. described plasma irisin increases after single aerobic exercise sessions in women with overweight (23); however, these changes were not seen after 8 (24) or 10 weeks (25) of aerobic exercise. Therefore, when analysing irisin responses, differentiation should be made between acute or chronic adaptations to exercise. In addition, confounding factors at sample extraction might also be contributing to the variability seen here. In a study included here, authors measured irisin from saliva samples after exercise or hot-water baths (Turkish baths), finding a similar 2-fold irisin increase (15). Even when interesting, measuring protein levels from saliva after exercise is challenging given the dehydration involved a factor that per se induces changes in saliva's protein concentration (31), affecting the results' interpretation. Therefore, considering the several confounding factors that might influence irisin levels during obesity and exercise, it is recommended the inclusion of multivariate analysis as statistical tools when analysing the irisin response to exercise, to reach clearer conclusions.

Considering that the main sources and targets of irisin are insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver), it is concerning that only a handful of studies investigates irisin changes directly in tissues during exercise (16,17,20). This overreliance on circulating measurements could originate in unprecise conclusions. For instance, Archundia-Herrera et al., in adolescent women, investigated the acute effect of two types of aerobic exercise (MICT and HIIT) in vastus lateralis and plasma irisin protein level. Even when no changes were detected in plasma, a ~2-fold increase was seen only after HIIT in the skeletal muscle (32). This could indicate that there might be latency between irisin induction derived from exercise and its translation into a higher circulatory availability. For this purpose, studies such as the one conducted by Winn et al. are useful to track irisin changes after one exercise session. They reported that ~2 hours after moderate-intensity exercise, irisin levels were significantly higher than pre-exercise values; however, after a high-intensity interval training session, these increases were seen only during the exercise session (23). These findings suggest that this potential latency between tissue and circulatory levels of irisin could also depend on the intensity of exercise. Therefore, these factors altogether might help to explain the variability found in the circulatory levels of irisin after exercise.

This review has several limitations to be considered. First, even when studies with children, adolescents, and older adults were not included, the broad age range of the participants included in this review could negatively impact the comparability of the studies presented here, considering the significant impact of age on systemic metabolism. Secondly, the sample sizes of the studies reviewed here were usually low (8 out of 14 studies had less than 15 participants), which in conjunction with the high variability of irisin concentrations, particularly in the circulation, could hinder the possibility to reach more robust conclusions. Moreover, the high variability of exercise prescription, even when they were under the same type (aerobic or resistance training), contributes to the scarce agreement between the studies' outcomes.

In conclusion, the literature available suggests that exercise induces increases in the circulatory concentrations of irisin in subjects with overweight or obesity. However, this response is highly variable and is not commonly found throughout the studies included in this review. This variability could be influenced by several factors, such as age, fitness level, exercise type, the sample used (serum, plasma, saliva, or tissue), and sample extraction time frame (Fig. 2). In addition, most of the clinical studies in the field haven't investigated how exercise modifies irisin expression in its known tissue sources, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, where it might be possible that different types of exercise could affect FNDC5 cleavage rates differently, particularly in skeletal muscle. Therefore, a more integrative approach is needed in this field to have a clearer understanding of this phenomenon.

Figure 2. Summary of the effects of exercise on irisin during obesity. Exercise might induce increases in circulatory levels of irisin, however, several studies failed to report any changes whatsoever. In skeletal muscle, incipient evidence suggests that exercise increases transcriptional levels of irisin, however, no studies were found in white adipose tissue in humans with overweight/obesity. Several confounder factors were highlighted among the studies, which could explain the variability of the results presented here (↑: increase; ↓: decrease; ↔: no change; ?: unclear/unknown). 


1. Goossens GH. The Metabolic Phenotype in Obesity: Fat Mass, Body Fat Distribution, and Adipose Tissue Function. Obes Facts. 2017;10(3):207-15. DOI: 10.1159/000471488 [ Links ]

2. De Matteis R, Lucertini F, Guescini M, Polidori E, Zeppa S, Stocchi V, et al. Exercise as a new physiological stimulus for brown adipose tissue activity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2013;23(6):582-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.01.013 [ Links ]

3. Vidal P, Stanford KI. Exercise-Induced Adaptations to Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020;11:270. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00270 [ Links ]

4. Enerback S. Brown adipose tissue in humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010;34(Suppl 1):S43-6. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2010.183 [ Links ]

5. Bartelt A, Heeren J. Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10(1):24-36. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.204 [ Links ]

6. Chen Y, Ding J, Zhao Y, Ju S, Mao H, Peng XG. Irisin induces white adipose tissue browning in mice as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021;246(14):1597-606. DOI: 10.1177/15353702211006049 [ Links ]

7. Ma C, Ding H, Deng Y, Liu H, Xiong X, Yang Y. Irisin: A New Code uncover the Relationship of Skeletal Muscle and Cardiovascular Health During Exercise. Front Physiol 2021;12:620608. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.620608 [ Links ]

8. Bostrom P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, et al. A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature 2012;481(7382):463-8. DOI: 10.1038/nature10777 [ Links ]

9. Arhire LI, Mihalache L, Covasa M. Irisin: A Hope in understanding and Managing Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019;10:524. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00524 [ Links ]

10. Shan T, Liang X, Bi P, Kuang S. Myostatin knockout drives browning of white adipose tissue through activating the AMPK-PGC1alpha-Fndc5 pathway in muscle. FASEB J 2013;27(5):1981-9. DOI: 10.1096/fj.12-225755 [ Links ]

11. Hecksteden A, Wegmann M, Steffen A, Kraushaar J, Morsch A, Ruppenthal S, et al. Irisin and exercise training in humans - RESULTS from a randomized controlled training trial. BMC Med 2013;11:235. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-235 [ Links ]

12. Lagzdina R, Rumaka M, Gersone G, Tretjakovs P. Circulating Irisin in Healthy AIdults: Changes after Acute Exercise, Correlation with Body Composition, and Energy Expenditure Parameters in Cross-Sectional Study. Medicina (Kaunas) 2020;56(6). DOI: 10.3390/medicina56060274 [ Links ]

13. Batitucci G, Brandao CFC, De Carvalho FG, Marchini JS, Pfrimer K, Ferrioli E, et al. Taurine supplementation increases irisin levels after high intensity physical training in obese women. Cytokine 2019;123:154741. DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2019.154741 [ Links ]

14. Dianatinasab A, Koroni R, Bahramian M, Bagheri-Hosseinabadi Z, Vaismoradi M, Fararouei M, et al. The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises on the plasma irisin levels, HOMA-IR, and lipid profiles in women with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Exerc Sci Fit 2020;18(3):168-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2020.06.004 [ Links ]

15. Aydin S, Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Yilmaz M, Kalayci M, Sahin I, et al. Alterations of irisin concentrations in saliva and serum of obese and normal-weight subjects, before and after 45 min of a Turkish bath or running. Peptides 2013;50:13-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.09.011 [ Links ]

16. Besse-Patin A, Montastier E, Vinel C, Castan-Laurell I, Louche K, Dray C, et al. Effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle myokine expression in obese men: identification of apelin as a novel myokine. Int J Obes (Lond) 2014;38(5):707-13. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2013.158 [ Links ]

17. Norheim F, Langleite TM, Hjorth M, Holen T, Kielland A, Stadheim HK, et al. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1alpha, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS J 2014;281(3):739-49. DOI: 10.1111/febs.12619 [ Links ]

18. Huh JY, Siopi A, Mougios V, Park KH, Mantzoros CS. Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100(3):E453-7. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-2416 [ Links ]

19. Bonfante IL, Chacon-Mikahil MP, Brunelli DT, Gaspari AF, Duft RG, Lopes WA, et al. Combined training, FNDC5/irisin levels and metabolic markers in obese men: A randomised controlled trial. Eur J Sport Sci 2017;17(5):629-37. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2017.1296025 [ Links ]

20. Korkmaz A, Venojarvi M, Wasenius N, Manderoos S, Deruisseau KC, Gidlund EK, et al. Plasma irisin is increased following 12 weeks of Nordic walking and associates with glucose homoeostasis in overweight/obese men with impaired glucose regulation. Eur J Sport Sci 2019;19(2):258-66. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2018.1506504 [ Links ]

21. Rashid FA, Abbas HJ, Naser NA, Addai Ali H. Effect of Long-Term Moderate Physical Exercise on Irisin between Normal Weight and Obese Men. ScientificWorldJournal 2020;2020:1897027. DOI: 10.1155/2020/1897027 [ Links ]

22. Bagheri R, Rashidlamir A, Ashtary-Larky D, Wong A, Grubbs B, Motevalli MS, et al. Effects of green tea extract supplementation and endurance training on irisin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and adiponectin concentrations in overweight middle-aged men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2020;120(4):915-23. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-020-04332-6 [ Links ]

23. Winn NC, Grunewald ZI, Liu Y, Heden TD, Nyhoff LM, Kanaley JA. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females. PLoS One 2017;12(1):e0170690. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170690 [ Links ]

24. Bagheri R, Rashidlamir A, Ashtary-Larky D, Wong A, Alipour M, Motevalli MS, et al. Does green tea extract enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise on fat loss? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020;86(4):753-62. DOI: 10.1111/bcp.14176 [ Links ]

25. Banitalebi E, Kazemi A, Faramarzi M, Nasiri S, Haghighi MM. Effects of sprint interval or combined aerobic and resistance training on myokines in overweight women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Life Sci 2019;217:101-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.11.062 [ Links ]

26. Kim HJ, Lee HJ, So B, Son JS, Yoon D, Song W. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study. Physiol Res 2016;65(2):271-9. DOI: 10.33549/physiolres.932997 [ Links ]

27. Blizzard LeBlanc DR, Rioux BV, Pelech C, Moffatt TL, Kimber DE, Duhamel TA, et al. Exercise-induced irisin release as a determinant of the metabolic response to exercise training in obese youth: the EXIT trial. Physiol Rep 2017;5(23). DOI: 10.14814/phy2.13539 [ Links ]

28. Grevendonk L, Connell NJ, McCrum C, Fealy CE, Bilet L, Bruls YMH, et al. Impact of aging and exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity, energy metabolism, and physical function. Nat Commun 2021;12(1):4773. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-24956-2 [ Links ]

29. Fox J, Rioux BV, Goulet EDB, Johanssen NM, Swift DL, Bouchard DR, et al. Effect of an acute exercise bout on immediate post-exercise irisin concentration in adults: A meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018;28(1):16-28. DOI: 10.1111/sms.12904 [ Links ]

30. Motahari Rad M, Bijeh N, Attarzadeh Hosseini SR, Raouf Saeb A. The Impact of Different Modes of Exercise Training on Irisin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Research. Journal of Advances in Medical and Biomedical Research. 2021;29(134):125-38. DOI: 10.30699/jambs.29.134.125 [ Links ]

31. Walsh NP, Montague JC, Callow N, Rowlands AV. Saliva flow rate, total protein concentration and osmolality as potential markers of whole body hydration status during progressive acute dehydration in humans. Arch Oral Biol 2004;49(2):149-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2003.08.001 [ Links ]

32. Archundia-Herrera C, Macias-Cervantes M, Ruiz-Munoz B, Vargas-Ortiz K, Kornhauser C, Pérez-Vazquez V. Muscle irisin response to aerobic vs HIIT in overweight female adolescents. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017;9:101. DOI: 10.1186/s13098-017-0302-5 [ Links ]

Funding:SM-H is supported by the National Agency of Research and Development (ANID) through an Early Career Research Grant (FONDECYT de iniciación en investigación), code 11200391. DH is supported by the National Agency of Research and Development (ANID) through an Early Career Research Grant (FONDECYT de iniciación en investigación), code 11190711. PE is supported by the National Agency of Research and Development (ANID) through a Research Grant (FONDECYT regular), code 1201635.

Bernal-Rivas C, Llamunao-Tropa A, Reyes-Barría A, Halabi D, Pavicic F, Ehrenfeld P, Martínez-Huenchullán S. Effects of exercise on irisin in subjects with overweight or obesity. A systematic reviewof clinical studies. Nutr Hosp 2022;39(6):1389-1396

Received: April 25, 2022; Accepted: May 11, 2022

Correspondence: Sergio Martínez Huenchullán. Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Function Laboratory - Neyün. Faculty of Medicine. Universidad Austral de Chile. Valdivia, Chile e-mail:

Conflicts of interest:

the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Authors' contributions:

Involved in the study concept and design (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, SM-H); acquisition of data (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, SM-H); analysis and interpretation of data (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, DH, FP, PE, SM-H); drafting of the manuscript (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, PE, SM-H); critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, DH, FP, PE, SM-H); and final approval for publication (CB-R, AL-T, AR-B, DH, FP, PE, SM-H).

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License